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Review Data Repository
Welcome to the Systematic Review Data Repository
The Systematic Review Data Repository (SRDR) is a powerful and easy-to-use tool for the extraction and management of data for systematic review or meta-analysis. It is also an open and searchable archive of systematic reviews and their data.
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Recently Completed and Deposited Reports Data

Noninvasive Treatments for Low Back Pain [Entered Retrospectively]

Public Report Complete
Statistics: 156 Studies, 2 Key Questions, 1 Extraction Form,
Date Created: Jul 23, 2015 09:52PM
Description: Objectives. Low back pain is common and many pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapies are available. This review examines the evidence on the comparative benefits and harms of noninvasive treatments for low back pain. Data Sources. A prior systematic review (searches through October 2008), electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE and the Cochrane Libraries, January 2008 to April 2015), reference lists, and clinical trials registries. Review Methods. Using predefined criteria, we selected systematic reviews of randomized trials of pharmacological treatments (acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAID]s, opioids, skeletal muscle relaxants, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, antiseizure medications, and systemic corticosteroids) and nonpharmacological treatments (psychological therapies, multidisciplinary rehabilitation, spinal manipulation, acupuncture, massage, exercise and related therapies, and various physical modalities) for nonradicular or radicular low back pain that addressed effectiveness or harms versus placebo, no treatment, usual care, a sham therapy, an inactive therapy, or another active therapy. We also included randomized trials that were not in systematic reviews. The quality of included studies was assessed, data were extracted, and results were summarized qualitatively based on the totality of the evidence. Results. Of the 2,545 citations identified at the title and abstract level, a total of 156 publications were included. Most trials enrolled patients with pain symptoms of at least moderate intensity (e.g., >5 on a 0- to 10-point NRS for pain). Across interventions, pain intensity was the most commonly reported outcome, followed by back-specific function. When present, observed benefits for pain were generally in the small (5 to 10 points on a 0- to 100-point visual analogue scale [VAS] or 0.5 to 1.0 points on a 0- to 10-point numerical rating scale) to moderate (10 to 20 points) range. Effects on function were generally smaller than effects on pain; in some cases there were positive effects on pain but no effects on function, and fewer studies measured function than pain. Benefits were mostly measured at short-term followup. For acute low back pain, evidence suggested that NSAIDs (strength of evidence [SOE]: low to moderate), skeletal muscle relaxants (SOE: moderate), opioids (SOE: low), exercise (SOE: low), and superficial heat (SOE: moderate) are more effective than placebo, no intervention, or usual care and that acetaminophen (SOE: low) and systemic corticosteroids (SOE: low) are no more effective than placebo. For chronic low back pain, effective therapies versus placebo, sham, no treatment, usual care, or wait list are NSAIDs, opioids, tramadol, duloxetine, multidisciplinary rehabilitation, acupuncture, and exercise (SOE: moderate) and benzodiazepines, psychological therapies, massage, yoga, tai chi, and low-level laser therapy (SOE: low); spinal manipulation was as effective as other active interventions (SOE: moderate). Few trials evaluated the effectiveness of treatments for radicular low back pain, but the available evidence found that benzodiazepines, corticosteroids, traction, and spinal manipulation were not effective or associated with small effects (SOE: low). Relatively few trials directly compared the effectiveness of different medications, different nonpharmacological therapies, or compared pharmacological versus nonpharmacological therapies, and generally found no clear differences in effects. Pharmacological therapies were associated with increased risk of adverse events versus placebo (SOE: low to moderate). Trials were not designed or powered to detect serious harms from pharmacological therapies. Although rates appeared to be low, and there was not an increased risk of serious harms versus placebo, this does not rule out significant risk from some treatments. For nonpharmacological therapies, assessment of harms was suboptimal, but serious harms appeared rare (SOE: low). Conclusions. A number of pharmacological and nonpharmacological, noninvasive treatments for low back pain are associated with small to moderate, primarily short-term effects on pain versus placebo, sham, wait list, or no treatment. Effects on function were generally smaller than effects on pain. More research is needed to understand optimal selection of treatments, effective combinations and sequencing of treatments, effectiveness of treatments for radicular low back pain, and effectiveness on outcomes other than pain and function.

Screening for Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnant Adolescents and Women to Prevent Preterm Delivery

Public Report Complete
Statistics: 45 Studies, 5 Key Questions, 1 Extraction Form,
Date Created: Jun 02, 2020 02:19PM
Description: A review of the evidence about screening for bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy to prevent preterm delivery.

SRDR Project Indexing

Public Report Complete
Statistics: 186 Studies, 1 Key Question, 1 Extraction Form,
Date Created: May 20, 2018 11:24PM
Description: This is a Methods Research project that catalogs the various projects with publicly available data on the SRDR Webpage.

Prehospital Airway Management: A Systematic Review

Public Report Complete
Statistics: 98 Studies, 4 Key Questions, 1 Extraction Form,
Date Created: Jan 09, 2021 12:16AM
Description: Objective. To assess the comparative benefits and harms across three airway management approaches (bag valve mask [BVM], supraglottic airway [SGA], and endotracheal intubation [ETI]) by emergency medical services in the prehospital setting and how the benefits and harms differ based on patient characteristics, techniques, and devices. Data sources. We searched electronic citation databases (Ovid® MEDLINE®, CINAHL®, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus®) from 1990 to September 2020, reference lists, and posted a Federal Register notice request for data. Review methods. Review methods followed Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Evidence-based Practice Center Program Methods guidance. Using pre-established criteria, studies were selected, dual reviewed, data abstracted, and evaluated for risk of bias. Meta-analyses using profile-likelihood random effects models were conducted when data were available from studies reporting on similar outcomes, with analyses stratified by study design, emergency type, and age. We qualitatively synthesized results when meta-analysis was not indicated. Strength of evidence (SOE) was assessed for primary outcomes (survival, neurological function, return of spontaneous circulation [ROSC], and successful advanced airway insertion [for SGA and ETI only]). Results. We included 99 studies (22 randomized controlled trials and 77 observational studies) involving 630,397 patients. Overall, we found few differences in primary outcomes when airway management approaches were compared. • For survival, there was moderate SOE for findings of no difference for BVM versus ETI in adult and mixed-age cardiac arrest patients. There was low SOE for no difference in these patients for BVM versus SGA and SGA versus ETI. There was low SOE for all three comparisons in pediatric cardiac arrest patients, and in adult trauma patients when BVM was compared with ETI. • For neurological function, there was moderate SOE for no difference for BVM compared with ETI in adults with cardiac arrest. There was low SOE for no difference in pediatric cardiac arrest for BVM versus ETI and SGA versus ETI. In adults with cardiac arrest, neurological function was better for BVM and ETI compared with SGA (both low SOE). • ROSC was only applicable in cardiac arrest. For adults, there was low SOE that ROSC was more frequent with SGA compared with ETI, and no difference for BVM versus SGA or BVM versus ETI. In pediatric patients there was also low SOE of no difference for BVM versus ETI and SGA versus ETI. • For successful advanced airway insertion, low SOE supported better first-pass success with SGA in adult and pediatric cardiac arrest patients and adult patients in studies that mixed emergency types. Low SOE also supported no difference for first-pass success in adult medical patients. For overall success, there was moderate SOE of no difference for adults with cardiac arrest, medical, and mixed emergency types. • While harms were not always measured or reported, moderate SOE supported all available findings. There were no differences in harms for BVM versus SGA or ETI. When SGA was compared with ETI, there were no differences for aspiration, oral/airway trauma, and regurgitation; multiple insertion attempts was better for SGA, and inadequate ventilation was better for ETI. Conclusions. The most common findings, across emergency types and age groups, was of no differences in primary outcomes when prehospital airway management approaches were compared. As most of the included studies were observational, these findings may reflect study design and methodological limitations. Due to the dynamic nature of the prehospital environment, the results are susceptible to indication and survival biases as well as confounding; however, the current evidence does not favor more invasive airway approaches. No conclusion was supported by high SOE for any comparison and patient group. This supports the need for high-quality randomized controlled trials designed to account for the variability and dynamic nature of prehospital airway management to advance and inform clinical practice, emergency medical services education and policy, and improve patient-centered outcomes.

Treatments for Acute Pain: A Systematic Review

Public Report Complete
Statistics: 190 Studies, 9 Key Questions, 1 Extraction Form,
Date Created: Dec 11, 2020 09:29PM
Description: To evaluate the effectiveness and comparative effectiveness of opioid, nonopioid pharmacologic, and nonpharmacologic therapy in patients with specific types of acute pain, including effects on pain, function, quality of life, adverse events, and long-term use of opioids.

Screening for Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Nonpregnant Adolescents and Adults: A Systematic Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force [Entered Retrospectively]

Public Report Complete
Statistics: 52 Studies, 7 Key Questions, 1 Extraction Form,
Date Created: Nov 24, 2020 07:43PM
Description: Background: A 2014 review for the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) found antiviral therapy for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection associated with improved intermediate outcomes, although evidence on clinical outcomes was limited. Purpose: To update the 2014 HBV screening review in nonpregnant adolescents and adults to inform the USPSTF. Data Sources: We utilized the 2014 review, searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Ovid MEDLINE (2014 to August 2019); with surveillance through July 24, 2020. Study Selection: Eligible studies included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies on the benefits and harms of screening versus no screening, and the yield of alternative screening strategies; RCTs on the effects of antiviral therapy versus placebo or no therapy and preferred versus nonpreferred therapies on intermediate outcomes, clinical outcomes, and harms; and cohort studies on clinical outcomes and on the association between intermediate outcomes following antiviral therapy and clinical outcomes. Data Extraction: One investigator abstracted data and a second investigator checked data abstraction for accuracy. Two investigators independently assessed study quality using methods developed by the USPSTF. Data Synthesis (Results): Fifty total studies (30 trials and 20 cohort studies) with a total of 94,168 participants were included; of these, 22 were added for this update. No study directly evaluated the effects of screening for HBV infection versus no screening on clinical outcomes, such as mortality, hepatocellular carcinoma, or cirrhosis. Screening strategies that focused on risk factors such as ever having immigrated from high prevalence countries plus demographic and behavioral risk factors would identify nearly all HBV infection cases. In one study (N=21,008), only screening immigrants from high HBV prevalence countries would miss approximately two-thirds of infected persons. Based on 18 trials (N=2,972), antiviral therapy was associated with greater likelihood than placebo or no treatment for achieving intermediate outcomes, such as virologic suppression and hepatitis B e antigen or hepatitis B surface antigen loss or seroconversion; the numbers needed to treat ranged from 2.6 for virological suppression to 17 for hepatitis B e antigen seroconversion. Based on 12 trials (N=4,127), preferred (first-line) antiviral therapies were at least as likely as nonpreferred therapies to achieve intermediate outcomes. Based on 16 trials (N=4,809), antiviral therapy might be associated with improved clinical outcomes, but data were sparse and imprecise. Nine cohort studies (N=3,893) indicated an association between achieving an intermediate outcome following antiviral therapy and improved clinical outcomes, but were heterogeneous (hazards ratios ranged from 0.07 to 0.87). Antiviral therapy was associated with higher risk of withdrawal due to adverse events versus placebo or no antiviral therapy. Limitations: Only English-language articles were included, clinical outcome data for antiviral therapies were limited, observational studies were included on effects of antiviral therapy on long-term clinical outcomes and the association between intermediate and clinical outcomes, and some studies were conducted in countries where the prevalence and natural history of HBV infection are different from the United States. Conclusions: There was no direct evidence for the clinical benefits and harms of HBV screening versus no screening. Antiviral therapy for HBV infection was associated with improved intermediate outcomes and may improve clinical outcomes. Research is needed to clarify effects of screening and subsequent interventions on clinical outcomes and to identify optimal screening strategies.

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