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Study Title and Description

Carbonated beverages and urinary calcium excretion.



Key Questions Addressed
1 For [population], is caffeine intake above [exposure dose], compared to intakes [exposure dose] or less, associated with adverse effects on bone and calcium balance outcomes?
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Primary Publication Information
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TitleData
Title Carbonated beverages and urinary calcium excretion.
Author RP Heaney,K Rafferty,
Country
Year 2001
Numbers

Secondary Publication Information
There are currently no secondary publications defined for this study.


Extraction Form: Bone & Calcium Outcomes
Design Details
Question... Follow Up Answer Follow-up Answer
Refid 11522558
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What outcome is being evaluated in this paper? Bone and Calcium
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What is the objective of the study (as reported by the authors)? We assessed the short-term effects on urinary calcium excretion of carbonated beverages of various compositions.
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Provide a general description of the methods as reported by the authors. Information should be extracted based on relevance to the SR (i.e., caffeine related methods) - Study participants recruited based on habitual consumption of at least two cans of carbonated beverages daily (n=32) - 4 different carbonated beverages; water used as negative control, 2 milks (white and chocolate) used as positive controls. Carbonated included 2 caffeinated (Coke and Mountain Dew) and 2 non-caffeinated. Caffeine content of beverages was attained from the Food Processor database. - Incomplete random block design study: 5 beverages tested on each woman, sequence random - Carbonated beverage serving = 567 ml (20 oz) - Urine collected over 5-hr period, analyzed for calcium, creatinine, sodium, titratable acidity, and total acidity. - Data were analyzed using ANOVA and paired t tests. Four method used to estimate excess calciuria.
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How many outcome-specific endpoints are evaluated? 1
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What is the (or one of the) endpoint(s) evaluated? (Each endpoint listed separately) changes in calcium excretion (calciuria)
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Clinical, physiological, other Physiological
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What is the study design? Controlled Trial
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Randomized or Non-Randomized? RCT
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What were the diagnostics or methods used to measure the outcome? Objective
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Optional: Name of Method or short description Urine collected over 5-hr period, analyzed for calcium, creatinine, sodium, titratable acidity, and total acidity.
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Caffeine (general) Caffeine (general)
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Coffee, Chocolate, energy drink, gum, medicine/supplement, soda, tea, other? soda
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Measured or self reported? Measured
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Children, adolescents, adults, or pregnant included? Adults
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What was the reference, comparison, or control group(s)? (e.g. high vs low consumption, number of cups, etc.) Positive (milk) and negative (water) controls; non-caffeinated beverages
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What were the listed confounders or modifying factors as stated by the authors? (e.g. multi-variable components of models.  Copy from methods) modifying factors evaluated via block design (vs in analysis)
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What were the sources of funding? Supported by Creighton University research funds and by Dairy Management, Inc.
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What conflicts of interest were reported? Not addressed by authors
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Results & Comparisons

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