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Study Title and Description

Pilot case-control investigation of risk factors for hip fractures in the urban Indian population.



Key Questions Addressed
1 For [population], is caffeine intake above [exposure dose], compared to intakes [exposure dose] or less, associated with adverse effects on bone and calcium balance outcomes?
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Primary Publication Information
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TitleData
Title Pilot case-control investigation of risk factors for hip fractures in the urban Indian population.
Author RM Jha,A Mithal,N Malhotra,EM Brown,
Country
Year 2010
Numbers

Secondary Publication Information
There are currently no secondary publications defined for this study.


Extraction Form: Bone & Calcium Outcomes
Design Details
Question... Follow Up Answer Follow-up Answer
Refid 20226091
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What outcome is being evaluated in this paper? Bone and Calcium
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What is the objective of the study (as reported by the authors)? The purpose of this pilot case-control investigation was to identify risk factors for hip fracture in an urban Indian population.
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Provide a general description of the methods as reported by the authors. Information should be extracted based on relevance to the SR (i.e., caffeine related methods) Subject selection: The study group consisted of 100 patients with a radiological confirmed diagnosis of a first hip fracture within the past three years. The control group was recruited from healthy visitors (not related to the cases) and staff in the three hospitals; it consisted of 100 age (within 2 years) and sex matched individuals. Data Collection: The cases were interviewed (via questionnaire) in the outpatient clinic of the hospital in which they had been admitted. Variables included: basic information (eg age, pulse rate, height), mode of fracture, visual impairment, difficulty getting up from a chair, weight loss, diet, calcium and vitamin supplements, prior illness and long term medication, activity and exercise. Participants were asked if within the past ten years they regularly drank tea, coffee, any other caffeinated drink, alcohol, and milk. If the subject responded in the affirmative to any of the above beverages, they were asked to quantify their intake as average number of glasses per day, week, or month. Statistical analyses: Univariate analyses were conducted to identify risk factors or hip fracture with logistic regression. The risk factors that were statistically significant based on a 5% significance level were used in a multivariate logistic regression model. A stepwise covariate selection algorithm was used to identify a set of risk factors that jointly affected the risk of hip fracture.
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How many outcome-specific endpoints are evaluated? 1
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What is the (or one of the) endpoint(s) evaluated? (Each endpoint listed separately) Hip fracture
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Clinical, physiological, other Clinical
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What is the study design? Case-Control
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Randomized or Non-Randomized?
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What were the diagnostics or methods used to measure the outcome? Objective
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Optional: Name of Method or short description Cases identified based on hospital admission/records
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Caffeine (general) Caffeine (general)
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Coffee, Chocolate, energy drink, gum, medicine/supplement, soda, tea, other? tea
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Measured or self reported? Self-report
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Children, adolescents, adults, or pregnant included? Adults
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What was the reference, comparison, or control group(s)? (e.g. high vs low consumption, number of cups, etc.) The control group was recruited from healthy visitors (not related to the cases) and staff in the three hospitals; it consisted of 100 age (within 2 years) and sex matched individuals.
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What were the listed confounders or modifying factors as stated by the authors? (e.g. multi-variable components of models.  Copy from methods) In multivariate analyses, variables included (in stepwise fashion): basic information (eg age, pulse rate, height), mode of fracture, visual impairment, difficulty getting up from a chair, weight loss, diet, calcium and vitamin supplements, prior illness and long term medication, activity and exercise.
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What were the sources of funding? Funding source not disclosed.
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What conflicts of interest were reported? The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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Results & Comparisons

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