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Study Title and Description

Effects of alcohol, coffee, and tobacco, alone or in combination, on physiological parameters and anxiety in a young population



Key Questions Addressed
1 For [population], is caffeine intake above [exposure dose], compared to intakes [exposure dose] or less, associated with adverse effects on cardiovascular outcomes?
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Primary Publication Information
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TitleData
Title Effects of alcohol, coffee, and tobacco, alone or in combination, on physiological parameters and anxiety in a young population
Author C. Vinader-Caerols, S. Monleon, C. Carrasco and A. Parra
Country
Year 2012
Numbers

Secondary Publication Information
There are currently no secondary publications defined for this study.


Extraction Form: Cardiovascular Design
Design Details
Question... Follow Up Answer Follow-up Answer
What outcome is being evaluated in this paper? Cardiovascular
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What is the objective of the study (as reported by the authors)? The objective of the present research was to evaluate the effects of a single dose of alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine, alone or in combination, on several physiological measures (SBP and diastolic blood pressure [DBP] and HR) and on state-trait anxiety in healthy young volunteers by reproducing the manner in which they are normally consumed by these subjects.
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Provide a general description of the methods as reported by the authors. Information should be extracted based on relevance to the SR (i.e., caffeine related methods) Subjects Participants were 76 healthy undergraduate students at the Faculty of Psychology, University of Valencia, Spain (12 men and 64 women; numbers were representative of the gender distribution of these students in the Psychology Faculty; mean age: 20.34 – 2.34 years). The volunteers were recruited as experimental subjects for this study according to self-report of their consumption habits and general health. They were distributed as follows: 10 control subjects, 10 smokers (>/=7 cigarettes per day), 10 habitual coffee consumers (>/=1 cup of coffee per day), 10 social consumers of alcohol (>/=3 standard drinks per week), 10 smokers and habitual coffee consumers, 8 smokers and social consumers of alcohol, 9 social consumers of alcohol and habitual coffee consumers, and 9 smokers, habitual coffee consumers, and social consumers of alcohol. The inclusion criteria were as follows: 18 years old or older, a body mass index of 18–27, and good health (reported by the subjects themselves). The exclusion criteria were as follows: being on medication, a history of mental disorders, an irregular sleep pattern during the night before the experiment, a history of substance abuse, and intake of caffeine, alcohol, or tobacco during the afternoon-night prior to the experiment, except in the case of the habitual consumers. Tests and Apparatus A digital automatic blood pressure monitor (M10-IT, OMRON, Spain) was used to measure SBP, DBP, and HR in all the subjects. Procedure According to their consumption habits, subjects were assigned to one of eight experimental treatment groups: Alcohol (A); Caffeine (C) (intake of a cup of coffee containing 80.6–86.73mg caffeine, determined using the high performance liquid chromatography technique); Nicotine (N); Caffeine-Nicotine (C-N); Caffeine-Alcohol (C-A); Caffeine-Alcohol-Nicotine (C-A-N); and Control group (Co) (no intake). Each subject participated in two phases separated by an interval of 25 minutes: treatment (10 minutes) and waiting time (15 minutes). In the first phase, the physiological parameters of BP and HR were registered in all the subjects. In the second phase, the same measures were registered, 0.10–0.19mg/L, respectively. All the experimental tests were performed between 10:00 a.m. and 01:00 p.m. [No information was provided as to what the control group did during the 25 minutes between measurements.] Statistics Separate analysis of variances (ANOVAs) were performed for each measure (SBP,DBP,HR, SA, and TA) in each treatment group (A, C, N, C-N, A-N, C-A, and C-A-N) with respect to Co, with two factors: the between-subjects factor ‘‘Treatment’’ and the intra-subjects factor ‘‘Phase.’’ When their interaction was statistically significant, post hoc analyses were carried out by means of Student’s t-tests for dependent and independent samples. All analyses were performed using the ‘‘Statistica’’ software package, version 5.5 for windows.
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How many outcome-specific endpoints are evaluated? 2
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What is the (or one of the) endpoint(s) evaluated? (Each endpoint listed separately) Blood pressure (SBP and DBP)
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List additional health endpoints (separately). 2 Heart rate
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List additional health endpoints (separately).3
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List additional health endpoints (separately).4
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List additional health endpoints (separately).5
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List additional health endpoints (separately).6
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Clinical, physiological, other Physiological
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What is the study design? Controlled Trial
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Randomized or Non-Randomized? NCT
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What were the diagnostics or methods used to measure the outcome? Objective
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Optional: Name of Method or short description A digital automatic blood pressure monitor (M10-IT, OMRON, Spain) was used to measure SBP, DBP, and HR in all the subjects.
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Caffeine (general) Caffeine (general)
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Coffee, Chocolate, energy drink, gum, medicine/supplement, soda, tea, other? Coffee
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Measured or self reported? Measured
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Children, adolescents, adults, or pregnant included? Adults
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What was the reference, comparison, or control group(s)? (e.g. high vs low consumption, number of cups, etc.) A control group received no treatment. In addition, measurements were taken before and after caffeine exposure.
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What were the listed confounders or modifying factors as stated by the authors? (e.g. multi-variable components of models.  Copy from methods) None
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What conflicts of interest were reported? All authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
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Refid 10499
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What were the sources of funding? This study is supported by a grant GV2007- 083 from ‘‘Generalitat Valenciana,’’ Spain (PI: C.V.-C.).
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Results & Comparisons

No Results found.