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Study Title and Description

Duration of coffee- and exercise-induced changes in the fatty acid profile of human serum.



Key Questions Addressed
1 For [population], is caffeine intake above [exposure dose], compared to intakes [exposure dose] or less, associated with adverse effects on cardiovascular outcomes?
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Primary Publication Information
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TitleData
Title Duration of coffee- and exercise-induced changes in the fatty acid profile of human serum.
Author V Mougios,S Ring,A Petridou,MG Nikolaidis,
Country
Year 2003
Numbers

Secondary Publication Information
There are currently no secondary publications defined for this study.


Extraction Form: Cardiovascular Design
Design Details
Question... Follow Up Answer Follow-up Answer
What outcome is being evaluated in this paper? Cardiovascular
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What is the objective of the study (as reported by the authors)? The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of exercise and coffee ingestion, separately and in combination, on selected variables of human serum related to carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, particularly the fatty acid composition of NEFA and triacylglycerols (TG).
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Provide a general description of the methods as reported by the authors. Information should be extracted based on relevance to the SR (i.e., caffeine related methods) Subjects Eight male and seven female young healthy individuals volunteered to participate in the study initially. They were nonsmokers and non-obese (body mass index <30 kg/m2) and trained up to two times per week. They consumed less than one alcoholic drink and less than three caffeine-containing beverages per day. Female participants were eumenorrheic and did not use oral contraceptives. One male and one female volunteer withdrew from the study before completing all four protocols because they could not respond to the demands of the experimental design; thus they were excluded. Subjects visited the laboratory on six occasions placed at least 3 days apart. At their first visit, a health history questionnaire was filled out, and body mass as well as height were measured to let us decide whether they were eligible for the study. They also consumed a coffee drink identical to the one they would have to consume for the study to familiarize themselves with it and detect any adverse effects. No such effects were reported. Participants were then asked not to modify their dietary or physical activity habits during the study. At their second visit, participants underwent body composition and maximal aerobic power assessment. During this test and subsequent exercise trials, heart rate was monitored continuously by a Polar Accurex monitor (Kempele). During each of the subsequent four occasions, subjects followed at random one of the protocols described below. Subjects reported to the laboratory in the morning after an overnight fast. They had been asked to abstain from caffeine-containing beverages during the previous 2 days and to record their dietary intake during the previous 3 days. They were unaware of the specific protocol that they were going to follow (except, of course, for the last occasion). Each subject provided 10 ml of blood from an antecubital vein into an evacuated test tube while seated at approximately 9 AM (taken as zero time) and then embarked on one of the following protocols. Control. Subject remained in a confined area for 12 h with lying, sitting, or walking allowed and without taking any food except water ad libitum and up to one pack of artificially flavored candy or chewing gum to combat the feeling of hunger. Subject provided blood samples as described above at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h. Then the subject had a standardized dinner providing 70 kJ/kg body mass in the laboratory (up to 1 h after blood sampling), recorded food intake, left the laboratory, slept, and fasted until the next morning, when a final blood sample was drawn (at 24 h). Coffee. Subject ingested 200 ml of warm instant coffee containing 5 mg caffeine/kg body mass (based on a content of 32 mg caffeine/g coffee, determined through high-performance liquid chromatography by the manufacturer, Nestle´) and tablets of an artificial sweetener (Nutrasweet) added to taste. Then the subject rested; provided blood samples at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h; had dinner; and provided a final blood sample at 24 h, as described under Control. Exercise. Subject rested for 1 h, provided a second blood sample, cycled for 1 h at 50–55% of his or her maximal aerobic power, and provided a blood sample immediately postexercise (at 2 h). Then the subject rested; provided blood samples at 4, 8, and 12 h; had dinner; and provided a final blood sample at 24 h, as described under Control. Cof+Ex. Subject ingested coffee as described under Coffee, provided a second blood sample at 1 h, cycled for 1 h at the same power output as under Exercise, and provided a blood sample immediately postexercise (at 2 h). Then the subject rested; provided blood samples at 4, 8, and 12 h; had dinner; and provided a final blood sample at 24 h, as described under Control. Biochemical Assays A 0.5-ml aliquot of each blood sample was mixed with EDTA solution to prevent clotting, to measure packed cell volume and hemoglobin (on the same day). Another 0.1-ml aliquot of the 0-, 1-, and 2-h samples of each protocol was precipitated with 0.3 mol/l HClO4 to determine lactate in the supernatant (also on the same day). The remaining blood was allowed to clot, and serum was prepared and stored at -20°C for all other assays. Total cholesterol (TC), and HDL cholesterol (HDLC) were assayed by enzymatic photometric methods through the use of reagent kits from Bohringer (Mannheim, Germany). All serum TC and HDLC values at 1–24 h were corrected for changes in plasma volume relative to 0 h, calculated from packed cell volume and hemoglobin. Statistical Analysis Data were analyzed through the SPSS software. Values are expressed as means +/- SE. Heart rate, plasma volume, and biochemical parameters were compared initially through three-way (gender x protocol x time) ANOVA with repeated measures on protocol and time. Because no significant interaction and no significant main effect of gender on any of the dependent variables was found, data from both genders were combined to increase the power of analysis, and two-way (protocol x time) ANOVA was performed. Significant differences between protocols or time points were detected by performing simple contrasts. Linear correlation analysis was done by Pearson’s product-moment correlation. The level of statistical significance was set at alpha = 0.05.
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How many outcome-specific endpoints are evaluated? 2
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What is the (or one of the) endpoint(s) evaluated? (Each endpoint listed separately) Heart rate
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List additional health endpoints (separately). 2 Serum cholesterol (TC and HDLC)
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List additional health endpoints (separately).3
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List additional health endpoints (separately).4
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List additional health endpoints (separately).5
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List additional health endpoints (separately).6
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Clinical, physiological, other Physiological
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What is the study design? Controlled Trial
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Randomized or Non-Randomized? RCT
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What were the diagnostics or methods used to measure the outcome? Objective
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Optional: Name of Method or short description Heart rate was monitored continuously by a Polar Accurex monitor (Kempele) TC and HDLC were assayed by enzymatic photometric methods through the use of reagent kits from Bohringer (Mannheim, Germany).
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Caffeine (general) Caffeine (general)
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Coffee, Chocolate, energy drink, gum, medicine/supplement, soda, tea, other? Coffee
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Measured or self reported? Measured
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Children, adolescents, adults, or pregnant included?
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What was the reference, comparison, or control group(s)? (e.g. high vs low consumption, number of cups, etc.) Each subject received the same treatment and served as his/her own control
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What were the listed confounders or modifying factors as stated by the authors? (e.g. multi-variable components of models.  Copy from methods) None
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What conflicts of interest were reported? No information provided
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Refid 12391036
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What were the sources of funding? No information provided
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Results & Comparisons

No Results found.