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Study Title and Description

Does an energy drink modify the effects of alcohol in a maximal effort test?



Key Questions Addressed
1 For [population], is caffeine intake above [exposure dose], compared to intakes [exposure dose] or less, associated with adverse effects on cardiovascular outcomes?
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Primary Publication Information
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TitleData
Title Does an energy drink modify the effects of alcohol in a maximal effort test?
Author SE Ferreira,MT de Mello,MV Rossi,ML Souza-Formigoni,
Country
Year 2004
Numbers

Secondary Publication Information
There are currently no secondary publications defined for this study.


Extraction Form: Cardiovascular Design
Design Details
Question... Follow Up Answer Follow-up Answer
What outcome is being evaluated in this paper? Cardiovascular
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What is the objective of the study (as reported by the authors)? This study aimed to verify the effects of alcohol, and alcohol combined with energy drink, on the performance of volunteers in a maximal effort test (cycle ergometer) and also on physiological indicators [oxygen uptake (VO2 ), ventilator threshold, respiratory exchange rate, heart rate and blood pressure], biochemical variables (glucose, lactate, insulin, cortisol, ACTH, dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline), and blood alcohol levels.
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Provide a general description of the methods as reported by the authors. Information should be extracted based on relevance to the SR (i.e., caffeine related methods) Subjects Fourteen male volunteers (age, 24 +/- 3 years) were invited to participate in the study. Initially they were submitted to a standardized medical examination and an electrocardiogram of effort. All volunteers were physically active but not athletes, as defined by the Questionnaire of Habitual Physical Activity (Baecke et al., 1982). All of them were moderate users of alcohol [defined as less than 14 standard doses per week), according to the Daily Drink Questionnaire] and moderate users of energy drinks (less than 10 cans of 250 ml in the last 6 months). Drugs A mixed solution of alcohol and energy drink was prepared containing 3.57 ml/kg of the energy drink (equivalent to one 250 ml can given to a 70 kg person) and 1.0 g/kg of alcohol (vodka Smirnoff®—37.5% v/v). The volume was completed with a commercial diet peach juice (Clight®—20% v/v of the volume of the mixed solution of alcohol and energy drink). Similar solutions were also prepared containing only alcohol and juice or only energy drink and juice. The energy drink used was Red Bull®, containing by 100 ml a mixture of sucrose and glucose (11.3 g), taurine (400 mg), caffeine (32 mg), gluconolactone (240 mg), inositol (20 mg), niacin (7.2 mg), pantenol (2.4 mg), B2 (0.64 mg), B6 (0.8 mg), B12 (0.4 _g), citric acid, caramel coloring, artificial flavoring, and sparkling water. Procedures Each volunteer was tested four times. In the first trial (control), the volunteers ingested water. In the other trials (separated by 1-week intervals), the volunteers ingested the drug solutions in a randomized order. The subjects arrived at the laboratory at 12:00 PM and rested, lying on a bed, for 30 min in order for us to evaluate their metabolism at rest. Following this, a standardized meal of 1000 calories was served. Sixty minutes after the meal, the volunteers ingested the drug solution. A catheter was installed in the antecubital vein to collect blood samples at the following times: immediately after the installation, 30 min after the drug ingestion, immediately after the effort test, and 30 and 60 min after the effort test. Catecholamines were determined by HPLC with electrochemical detection (column Shim-pack CLC-ODS, Shimadzu, Tokyo, Japan). Sixty minutes after the ingestion of the solution, the volunteers were tested in a cycle ergometer (Cateyer ergociser Ec 1600, Tokyo, Japan) using a ramp protocol. A heart monitor (Polar® Advantage, Lake Success, NY) continuously monitored the heart rate, and the blood pressure was monitored by a semiautomatic sphygmometer (Omron, Inc, Vernon Hills, China). Statistical Analysis The variables were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls post hoc comparisons, using the software Statistica (Stat-Soft, Inc., Sao Paulo, Brazil). The significance level was set at 5% (p < 0.05). The results are presented as mean +/- standard deviation.
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How many outcome-specific endpoints are evaluated? 3
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What is the (or one of the) endpoint(s) evaluated? (Each endpoint listed separately) Blood pressure
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List additional health endpoints (separately). 2 Heart rate
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List additional health endpoints (separately).3 Blood catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine)
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List additional health endpoints (separately).4
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List additional health endpoints (separately).5
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List additional health endpoints (separately).6
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Clinical, physiological, other Physiological
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What is the study design? Controlled Trial
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Randomized or Non-Randomized? RCT
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What were the diagnostics or methods used to measure the outcome? Objective
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Optional: Name of Method or short description A heart monitor (Polar® Advantage, Lake Success, NY) continuously monitored the heart rate, and the blood pressure was monitored by a semiautomatic sphygmometer (Omron, Inc, Vernon Hills, China). Catecholamines were determined by HPLC with electrochemical detection (column Shim-pack CLC-ODS, Shimadzu, Tokyo, Japan)
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Caffeine (general)
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Coffee, Chocolate, energy drink, gum, medicine/supplement, soda, tea, other?
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Measured or self reported? Measured
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Children, adolescents, adults, or pregnant included? Adults
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What was the reference, comparison, or control group(s)? (e.g. high vs low consumption, number of cups, etc.) Subjects served as their own controls (placebo)
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What were the listed confounders or modifying factors as stated by the authors? (e.g. multi-variable components of models.  Copy from methods) None
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What conflicts of interest were reported? No information provided
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Refid 15365313
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What were the sources of funding? Supported by Grant 00/15.043-7 from Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP), Associação Fundo de Incentivo à Psicofarmacologia (AFIP), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), and CEPE/CENESP/UNIFESP.
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Results & Comparisons

No Results found.