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Study Title and Description

Influence of caffeine on perception of effort, metabolism and exercise performance following a high-fat meal.



Key Questions Addressed
1 For [population], is caffeine intake above [exposure dose], compared to intakes [exposure dose] or less, associated with adverse effects on cardiovascular outcomes?
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Primary Publication Information
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TitleData
Title Influence of caffeine on perception of effort, metabolism and exercise performance following a high-fat meal.
Author M Hadjicharalambous,E Georgiades,LP Kilduff,AP Turner,F Tsofliou,YP Pitsiladis,
Country
Year 2006
Numbers

Secondary Publication Information
There are currently no secondary publications defined for this study.


Extraction Form: Cardiovascular Design
Design Details
Question... Follow Up Answer Follow-up Answer
What outcome is being evaluated in this paper? Cardiovascular
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What is the objective of the study (as reported by the authors)? The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of caffeine ingestion, following acute elevation of plasma [FFA] induced by a high fat meal, on perceptual and metabolic responses during constant-load submaximal exercise, and on incremental and endurance exercise performance.
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Provide a general description of the methods as reported by the authors. Information should be extracted based on relevance to the SR (i.e., caffeine related methods) Participants Eight endurance-trained male athletes (age 27, s= 4 years; body mass 73.7, s=7.8 kg) and ten endurance-trained male cyclists (age 25, s=6 years; body mass 74.3, s= 8.6 kg) volunteered to participate in Experiment 1 and Experiment 2, respectively. Participants were required to undertake three exercise tests in both Experiment 1 and Experiment 2. In Experiment 1, participants cycled at an ambient temperature of 208 C for 30 min at a work rate equivalent to 63% of each individual’s maximal work rate, which was immediately followed by a 15W/min ramp to the limit of tolerance. In Experiment 1, each consecutive test was separated by at least one week. In Experiment 2, participants cycled to exhaustion at a similar work rate to that in Experiment 1. During the familiarization period (i.e. 3 days before the second familiarization trial), each participant’s normal energy intake and diet composition were determined from weighed dietary intake data, using a computerized version of the food composition tables of McCance and Widdowson (revised by Holland et al ., 1991). Based on this information, participants were prescribed a high (70%) carbohydrate diet throughout the study period, intended to increase and maintain liver and muscle glycogen concentrations before each of the main exercise trials (Bergstrom, Hermansen, Hultman, & Saltin, 1967). Four hours before the first exercise test in both Experiment 1 and Experiment 2, the participants consumed a standardized high carbohydrate meal (90% of energy intake in the form of carbohydrate [control trial]). In both experiments, the control trial was always performed first. Consequently, this trial was not included in the randomization, and hence in the statistical analysis. Four hours before the second and third exercise tests, the participants consumed a standardized high fat meal (1 g fat/kg body mass; 90% of energy intake in the form of fat). One hour before exercise following the high fat meals (second and third tests), the participants ingested, in a cross-over double-blind manner, capsules containing caffeine (Experiment 1: 7 mg/kg body mass; Experiment 2: 7.5 mg/kg body mass [fat. caffeine trial]) or an equivalent amount of placebo (calcium carbonate [fat-only trial]). Participants were required to maintain normal dietary and training habits throughout the study period, but to refrain from strenuous training and consumption of alcohol or caffeine-containing products in the 48 h prior to each exercise test. Procedures All exercise tests were carried out between 16:00 and 21:00 h following a 4 h fast, where water was allowed ad libitum . The experimental protocols for Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 are shown in Figure 1. Participants reported to the laboratory 1 ½ h before the start of exercise, and on the two fat trials consumed capsules containing caffeine or placebo, 3 h after consuming the fat meal. Heart rate (Polar Sport Tester, Polar Electro Oy, Finland) was recorded every 10min during exercise until exhaustion. Data Analysis All data are expressed as the mean with standard deviations (s) or median (range), as appropriate, following a test for the normality of distribution. As all participants completed the control trial first and were subsequently assigned to the two fat trials in randomized order, statistical analysis was carried out on the two fat trials. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using a two-factor analysis of variance for repeated measures followed by Student’s t-test for paired data, where necessary. Statistical significance was set at P< 0.05 for both experiments.
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How many outcome-specific endpoints are evaluated? 1
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What is the (or one of the) endpoint(s) evaluated? (Each endpoint listed separately) Heart rate
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List additional health endpoints (separately). 2
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List additional health endpoints (separately).3
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List additional health endpoints (separately).4
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List additional health endpoints (separately).5
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List additional health endpoints (separately).6
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Clinical, physiological, other Physiological
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What is the study design? Controlled Trial
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Randomized or Non-Randomized? RCT
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What were the diagnostics or methods used to measure the outcome? Objective
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Optional: Name of Method or short description Heart rate was recorded using a Polar Sport Tester, Polar Electro Oy, Finland
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Caffeine (general) Caffeine (general)
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Coffee, Chocolate, energy drink, gum, medicine/supplement, soda, tea, other?
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Measured or self reported? Measured
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Children, adolescents, adults, or pregnant included? Adults
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What was the reference, comparison, or control group(s)? (e.g. high vs low consumption, number of cups, etc.) Subjects served as their own controls
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What were the listed confounders or modifying factors as stated by the authors? (e.g. multi-variable components of models.  Copy from methods) None
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What conflicts of interest were reported? No information provided
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Refid 16815783
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What were the sources of funding? No information provided
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Results & Comparisons

No Results found.