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Study Title and Description

Catechol-o-methyltransferase gene polymorphism modifies the effect of coffee intake on incidence of acute coronary events.



Key Questions Addressed
1 For [population], is caffeine intake above [exposure dose], compared to intakes [exposure dose] or less, associated with adverse effects on cardiovascular outcomes?
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Primary Publication Information
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TitleData
Title Catechol-o-methyltransferase gene polymorphism modifies the effect of coffee intake on incidence of acute coronary events.
Author P Happonen,S Voutilainen,TP Tuomainen,JT Salonen,
Country
Year 2006
Numbers

Secondary Publication Information
There are currently no secondary publications defined for this study.


Extraction Form: Cardiovascular Design
Design Details
Question... Follow Up Answer Follow-up Answer
What outcome is being evaluated in this paper? Cardiovascular
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What is the objective of the study (as reported by the authors)? We examined whether the functional polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, resulting in several-fold differences in the metabolism of circulating catecholamines, modifies the effect of heavy consumption of caffeine-containing coffee on the risk of acute coronary events in a cohort of middle-aged eastern Finnish men initially free from symptomatic CHD.
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Provide a general description of the methods as reported by the authors. Information should be extracted based on relevance to the SR (i.e., caffeine related methods) Study Design and Population The Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study is a population-based prospective follow-up study of 2682 men aged 42, 48, 54, or 60 years at the baseline examination carried out in 1984–89. The study population was recruited in two cohorts. The present analysis is based on the latter cohort of 1516 men enrolled between 1986 and 1989. After exclusion of 353 men with prevalent CHD at baseline, data on coffee consumption and smoking, as well as a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sample, were available for 773 men. DNA Extraction and COMT Genotyping COMT genotypes (homozygous for the low activity allele, LL genotype; homozygous for the high activity allele, HH genotype; and heterozygous, LH genotype) were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis from the DNA by an investigator unaware of the phenotype. Assessment of Coffee Intake and Diet Consumption of foods and beverages was assessed with an instructed and interview-checked 4-day food recording by household measures, including cups of coffee and tea. Dietary intake of foods and nutrients was calculated using NUTRICA software (National Public Health Institute, Turku, Finland). Measurement of Covariates and Catecholamine Excretion A participant was defined a current smoker if he had ever smoked on a regular basis and had smoked within the past 30 days. The lifelong exposure to smoking was estimated as the product of years smoked and the number of cigarettes, cigars, and pipefuls smoked at the baseline examination. Diabetes was defined as self-reported diabetes mellitus or fasting blood glucose of 6.1 mM or more. Assessment of alcohol consumption, serum lipids, blood pressure, and body mass index, conditioning leisure-time physical activity, waist–hip ratio, and plasma vitamin C concentration was carried out as described previously. [NOTE: urinary adrenaline and noradrenaline measured for some subjects; however, analysis was limited to linear regression (trend); therefore, specific methods and results are not summarized herein.] Ascertainment of CHD events The collection of data on and classification of possible acute myocardial infarction and coronary death (here referred to as ‘‘acute coronary events’’) until the end of 1992 is previously described. From 1993, data on acute coronary events were obtained by computer linkage to the national hospital discharge registry; diagnostic information was collected from the hospitals and classified using identical diagnostic criteria. There were no losses to follow-up. In case of multiple events in the same participant, the first event was considered the endpoint. Statistical Analysis All analyses were performed with SPSS version 11.5 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). Average daily coffee intake was divided into four categories: 0 (non-drinkers), 1 to 375 mL (light drinkers), 376 to 813 mL (moderate drinkers), and 814 mL and over (heavy drinkers). To evaluate biologic interaction (departures from additivity), a single composite variable with six joint-exposure categories was created; the COMT LH and LL genotypes were combined into a single category and coffee non-drinkers were combined with light drinkers. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between the composite coffee intake–COMT variable and acute coronary events; heavy coffee drinkers with either the HH or LH genotype were used as the reference category. Continuous covariates without a meaningful zero value were centered around their respective means. Statistical inference was based on 90% Wald confidence intervals or two-sided p-values.
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How many outcome-specific endpoints are evaluated? 1
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What is the (or one of the) endpoint(s) evaluated? (Each endpoint listed separately) Acute coronary events (incidence of acute MI or CHD deaths)
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List additional health endpoints (separately). 2
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List additional health endpoints (separately).3
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List additional health endpoints (separately).4
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List additional health endpoints (separately).5
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List additional health endpoints (separately).6
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Clinical, physiological, other Clinical
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What is the study design? Cohort
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Randomized or Non-Randomized?
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What were the diagnostics or methods used to measure the outcome? Objective
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Optional: Name of Method or short description The collection of data on and classification of possible acute myocardial infarction and coronary death (here referred to as ‘‘acute coronary events’’) until the end of 1992 is previously described. From 1993, data on acute coronary events were obtained by computer linkage to the national hospital discharge registry; diagnostic information was collected from the hospitals and classified using identical diagnostic criteria.
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Caffeine (general)
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Coffee, Chocolate, energy drink, gum, medicine/supplement, soda, tea, other? Coffee
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Measured or self reported? Self-report
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Children, adolescents, adults, or pregnant included? Adults
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What was the reference, comparison, or control group(s)? (e.g. high vs low consumption, number of cups, etc.) Heavy coffee drinkers (>814 ml/day) with LL genotype was used as the reference group
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What were the listed confounders or modifying factors as stated by the authors? (e.g. multi-variable components of models.  Copy from methods) Age, pack-years of smoking, family history of CHD, and vitamin C deficiency, systolic blood pressure, serum LDL and HDL cholesterol concentration, and diabetes
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What conflicts of interest were reported? The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
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Refid 17205121
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What were the sources of funding? This study was supported in part by grants from the Academy of Finland (201688 and 80185 for S.V.), the Ministry of Education of Finland, the city of Kuopio, and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the United States. Additional support was provided to P.H. by the Juho Vainio Foundation, the Finnish Cultural Fund/North Savo Fund, the Yrjo¨ Jahnsson Foundation, and the Finnish Foundation for Medical Science.
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Results & Comparisons

No Results found.