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Study Title and Description

Coffee consumption and mortality in a 14-year follow-up of an elderly northern Finnish population.



Key Questions Addressed
1 For [population], is caffeine intake above [exposure dose], compared to intakes [exposure dose] or less, associated with adverse effects on cardiovascular outcomes?
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Primary Publication Information
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TitleData
Title Coffee consumption and mortality in a 14-year follow-up of an elderly northern Finnish population.
Author P Happonen,E Läärä,L Hiltunen,H Luukinen,
Country
Year 2008
Numbers

Secondary Publication Information
There are currently no secondary publications defined for this study.


Extraction Form: Cardiovascular Design
Design Details
Question... Follow Up Answer Follow-up Answer
What outcome is being evaluated in this paper? Cardiovascular
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What is the objective of the study (as reported by the authors)? To strengthen the evidence base on the health effects of coffee among the elderly, we studied the 14-year mortality experience of a home-dwelling population aged 70 years or over with reference to daily coffee consumption.
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Provide a general description of the methods as reported by the authors. Information should be extracted based on relevance to the SR (i.e., caffeine related methods) A population-based cohort of 817 elderly men and women born in 1920 or earlier and living in northern Finland provided complete data on daily coffee consumption and other variables at the baseline examination in 1991–1992. Deaths were monitored through to the end of 2005 by national death certificates, resulting in 6,960 person-years of follow-up. Data on previous myocardial infarctions were of the Oulu University Hospital and were based on codes 410·00–410·99 (International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-8) during 1976–1986 and thereafter on codes 4100– 4109 (ICD-9). Current coffee consumption was measured with one question: ‘How many cups of coffee do you drink daily?’ Neither the cup size nor the type of coffee consumed was specified, but in this population the usual-size cup holds approximately 125 ml coffee and the great majority is likely to consume caffeine-containing coffee only. A second survey was conducted 2–3 years later, including again a postal questionnaire sent in 1994 to the members of the study cohort who still lived in the study area. Among other items, current daily coffee consumption was asked similarly to the baseline survey. Death certificates from Statistics Finland were obtained to record mortality. Mortality follow-up, described in detail in previous reports was individually started on the date of entry (first postal survey) and ended on the date of exit: either the day of death, emigration from the study area, or the closing of the study on 31 December 2005, whichever occurred first. The mortality experience was first related to coffee consumption assessed at baseline, and for this purpose we followed-up the cohort from the date of entry up to the date of exit. Second, we investigated mortality in relation to coffee consumption at both the first and the second survey. This analysis was restricted to those who were alive and responded to the second survey questionnaire, starting their follow-up from that date onwards.
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How many outcome-specific endpoints are evaluated? 1
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What is the (or one of the) endpoint(s) evaluated? (Each endpoint listed separately) Mortality from vascular disease
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List additional health endpoints (separately). 2
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List additional health endpoints (separately).3
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List additional health endpoints (separately).4
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List additional health endpoints (separately).5
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List additional health endpoints (separately).6
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Clinical, physiological, other Clinical
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What is the study design? Cohort
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Randomized or Non-Randomized?
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What were the diagnostics or methods used to measure the outcome? Objective
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Optional: Name of Method or short description Death certificates from Statistics Finland were obtained to record mortality.
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Caffeine (general)
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Coffee, Chocolate, energy drink, gum, medicine/supplement, soda, tea, other? Coffee
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Measured or self reported? Self-report
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Children, adolescents, adults, or pregnant included? Adults
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What was the reference, comparison, or control group(s)? (e.g. high vs low consumption, number of cups, etc.) The reference group was the group who consumed 1-2 cups/day (even though there was a group who had consumed 0 cups).
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What were the listed confounders or modifying factors as stated by the authors? (e.g. multi-variable components of models.  Copy from methods) For cardiovascular disease: age, sub-period of follow-up, sex, marital status, basic educational level, previous occupational group, current smoking, BMI, history of myocardial infarction, self-rated health and presence of diabetes, cognitive impairment or physical disability. Adjusted rates were also estimated separately for the three sub-periods of follow-up with Poisson models. Also, models were fitted where daily coffee consumption was treated as a quantitative variable considering both the linear and quadratic model and against the model with the categorical coffee variable.
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What conflicts of interest were reported? None of the authors had any conflicts of interest.
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Refid 18062826
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What were the sources of funding? Supported in part by the Finnish Ministry of Social Welfare and Health, and the Oulu University Hospital Medical Research Fund (Oulu, Finland).
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Results & Comparisons

No Results found.