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Study Title and Description

The relationship between caffeine and blood pressure in preadolescent African American girls.



Key Questions Addressed
1 For [population], is caffeine intake above [exposure dose], compared to intakes [exposure dose] or less, associated with adverse effects on cardiovascular outcomes?
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Primary Publication Information
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TitleData
Title The relationship between caffeine and blood pressure in preadolescent African American girls.
Author JG Reddy,JO Ebbert,LM Klesges,FT Enders,RC Klesges,JQ Lanctot,BS McClanahan,
Country
Year 2008
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Secondary Publication Information
There are currently no secondary publications defined for this study.


Extraction Form: Cardiovascular Design
Design Details
Question... Follow Up Answer Follow-up Answer
What outcome is being evaluated in this paper? Cardiovascular
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What is the objective of the study (as reported by the authors)? The primary objective of this study was to assess the cross-sectional relationship between caffeine intake and blood pressure in 8- to 10-year-old African American girls who eat an unrestricted diet.
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Provide a general description of the methods as reported by the authors. Information should be extracted based on relevance to the SR (i.e., caffeine related methods) Study setting and sample: GEMS (Girls health Enrichment Multisite Studies) is an ongoing research project that develops and tests interventions designed to prevent excess weight gain in 8- to 10-year-old preadolescent African American girls. Phase 1 of GEMS, consisting of formative assessment and pilot work, was conducted at four field centers located at Baylor College of Medicine, Houston; the University of Memphis, Memphis; the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis; and Stanford University, Palo Alto. A coordinating center located at the George Washington University Biostatistics Center, Washington, DC, provided support and coordination for key study activities. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute sponsored the project and collaborated in its design. Phase 2 of GEMS was conducted at the University of Memphis and Stanford University and involved testing interventions developed in phase 1. Baseline data collected on the girls who participated at the Memphis center for phase 2 were used in this report. The Memphis GEMS study enrolled 303 preadolescent (aged 8–10 years), African American girls who were determined to be at risk for developing obesity. Data collected at baseline included demographic information such as age, height, weight, physical measures such as blood pressure, and three 24-hour dietary recalls each obtained one to two weeks apart. Measures: Blood pressure was measured by using an automated blood pressure monitor (Dinamap Pro 100, Milwaukee, Wisc). Three measurements were taken, each at least one minute after the values had been computed. Mean arterial pressure, pulse pressure, SBP, and DBP were recorded. Dietary measures: At baseline, three 24-hour dietary recalls for the previous day were collected from the girls, each 1–2 weeks apart, by trained nutrition staff. Recalls covering one weekend day and one weekday were targeted. The first recall was collected in person with online interview prompts to help the subject recall the foods and with access to a food amounts booklet depicting portion sizes, to aid in estimating the amounts eaten. The other two recalls were collected by telephone with the same food amounts booklet. Parents were allowed to assist the girl’s dietary recalls in an attempt to improve accuracy. These methods have been validated for use in children as young as the third grade and indicate the added value of parental assistance Measurement of dietary intake of caffeine and sodium: Amounts of caffeine and sodium intake were derived from 24-hour dietary recalls by using the NDS-R and averaged over the three recalls to estimate mean daily intake in milligrams per day. Foods and beverages that were analyzed to derive the amount of caffeine intake from the 24-hour dietary recall data included soft drinks/carbonated beverages, fruit drinks, tea, coffee, and coffee substitutes.
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How many outcome-specific endpoints are evaluated? 3
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What is the (or one of the) endpoint(s) evaluated? (Each endpoint listed separately) Blood pressure
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List additional health endpoints (separately). 2 Mean arterial pressure
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List additional health endpoints (separately).3 Pulse pressure
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List additional health endpoints (separately).4
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List additional health endpoints (separately).5
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List additional health endpoints (separately).6
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Clinical, physiological, other Physiological
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What is the study design? Cross-sectional
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Randomized or Non-Randomized?
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What were the diagnostics or methods used to measure the outcome? Objective
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Optional: Name of Method or short description Blood pressure was measured by using an automated blood pressure monitor (Dinamap Pro 100, Milwaukee, Wisc). Three measurements were taken, each at least one minute after the values had been computed.
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Caffeine (general)
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Coffee, Chocolate, energy drink, gum, medicine/supplement, soda, tea, other? Coffee, soda, tea, Other
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Measured or self reported? Self-report
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Children, adolescents, adults, or pregnant included? Children
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What was the reference, comparison, or control group(s)? (e.g. high vs low consumption, number of cups, etc.)
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What were the listed confounders or modifying factors as stated by the authors? (e.g. multi-variable components of models.  Copy from methods) Average of the recalls was used to represent amounts of caffeine and sodium intake per day. The relationship between blood pressure and age, height, BMI, and average daily amounts of caffeine and sodium intake was tested by using univariate and multivariate regression models. Blood pressure was the outcome variable for these models. The primary predictor variable was amount of caffeine intake, which was adjusted for age, height, BMI, and sodium intake. To achieve the most parsimonious model, each of the potential covariates was added to the model one at a time in a forward stepwise fashion until the greatest number with statistical significance (P<0.05) were included.
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What conflicts of interest were reported? Not discussed.
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Refid 18785440
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What were the sources of funding? This study was supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute grant HL62662.
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Results & Comparisons

No Results found.