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Study Title and Description

Effect of Red Bull energy drink on cardiovascular and renal function.



Key Questions Addressed
1 For [population], is caffeine intake above [exposure dose], compared to intakes [exposure dose] or less, associated with adverse effects on cardiovascular outcomes?
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Primary Publication Information
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TitleData
Title Effect of Red Bull energy drink on cardiovascular and renal function.
Author FR Ragsdale,TD Gronli,N Batool,N Haight,A Mehaffey,EC McMahon,TW Nalli,CM Mannello,CJ Sell,PJ McCann,GM Kastello,T Hooks,T Wilson,
Country
Year 2010
Numbers

Secondary Publication Information
There are currently no secondary publications defined for this study.


Extraction Form: Cardiovascular Design
Design Details
Question... Follow Up Answer Follow-up Answer
What outcome is being evaluated in this paper? Cardiovascular
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What is the objective of the study (as reported by the authors)? The effects of Red Bull energy drink on cardiovascular and neurologic functions were examined in college- aged students enrolled at Winona State University.
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Provide a general description of the methods as reported by the authors. Information should be extracted based on relevance to the SR (i.e., caffeine related methods) Subjects: Sixty-eight undergraduates (48 females and 21 males, average age = 19.8 ± 1.6 years) from the Human Anatomy and Physiology course at Winona State University volunteered for the first exercise examining the effects of Red Bull_ consumption on blood glucose, salivary caffeine, cardiovascular, and renal physiology. Twenty-one upper division students (12 female and 9 males, average age = 22) were recruited for the second exercise examining the effects of Red Bull_ on pain perception and blood pressure when exposed to a physical stressor. All volunteers were self-described as health, with no history of cardiovascular, urinary, digestive or metabolic diseases including but not limited to noninsulin dependent diabetes. Study design and procedures: The first study was a double-blind exercise where the volunteers were assigned to one of four treatments upon arrival at the laboratory. These treatments were Normal Calorie Red Bull_ (250 mL can, 110 cal), Low Calorie Red Bull_ (250 mL, 10 cal), high calorie placebo (250 mL, 110 cal) and low calorie placebo (250 mL, 10 cal). The placebos were prepared with carbonated water, tap water, and dextrose. Banana flavor (FLAVORx_ , Columbia, MD, USA) and green food coloring were added to all beverages to try and mask the flavor of the Red Bull and placebo treatments. Upon completion of the exercise, 38 of the 68 participants were unable to correctly identify their assigned beverage. This study assessed heart rate, blood pressure (systolic and diastolic pressures), ECG’s, blood glucose levels, urine specific gravity, urine formation rates, and saliva caffeine concentrations. The sampling intervals were at 0, 60 and 120 min Red Bull_ consumption. Heart rates and ECG’s were collected on a PowerLab (ADInstruments, Colorado Springs, CO, USA) for 30 sec recordings at each of these intervals. Electrocardiographic analysis consisted of atrial and ventricular ectopy count, QTI: Q–T interval, QTIrc : rate-corrected QT interval, SDNN: heart rate variation change in the ST-segment relative to the isoelectric line, Twave: count of T-wave inversions. Blood pressures were measured by an automated sphygmomanometer (Omron Healthcare Inc., Banncockburn, IL, USA). Blood glucose measurements were collected using Accu-Chek Blood Analyzers (Roche Diagnostics Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA). Urine samples were analyzed with Urisys 1100 (Roche Diagnostic Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA) for specific gravity and pH. In addition, urine volumes were recorded for the 60 and 120 min samples and urine formation rates were calculated. Saliva samples were collected in microcentrifuge tubes and frozen at - 70_ C until solid-phase extraction (Bondesil, CHCl3 , proxyphylline internal standard) and GC_MS analysis on a HP-5MS (30 m 9 0.25 mm 9 0.25 l m) column. Selected-ion chromatograms (m /z = 194) were integrated and peak areas corrected based on response factors generated from standard solutions. Statistical comparisons were made using SAS PROC MIXED to carry out a repeated measures analysis (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). expressed as standard deviation of the R–R interal, pNN50: count of consecutive normals sinus rhythm that exceed 50 milliseconds (ms), pNN50%: percentage of all counted R–R intervals with successive normal sinus R–R intervals[ 50 ms, QRS: QRS duration expressed in ms, ST: The second study assessed blood pressure, heart rate, pain threshold, pain tolerance, and overall pain assessment (VAS) before and directly after a cold pressor test pre- and postprandial Red Bull_ consumption. The cold pressor test by its very nature as a stress test has been shown to increase MAP (Reiser and Ferris 1947 ; Lafleche et al. 1998 ; Bichler et al. 2006 ). Initial blood pressure and heart rate measures were repeatedly taken until three consistent readings were obtained (approximately 20 min). With the cold pressor test, subjects were asked to submerge their non-dominant hand into a 5_ C bath upon the ‘‘start’’ signal. The test duration was limited to 5 min to restrict tissue damage due to cold exposure. Pain threshold (sec) was defined as the elapsed time, the hand was in the cold water bath (5_ C) until the volunteer perceived pain. The pain tolerance (sec) was determined when the volunteer could no longer keep their hand in the cold water or completion of the 5-min time limit. A pulse pressure monitor on a finger of their dominant hand recorded heart rate throughout the duration of the exercise. Consumption of Red Bull_ was 40 min after completion of the first cold pressor test.
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How many outcome-specific endpoints are evaluated? 6
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What is the (or one of the) endpoint(s) evaluated? (Each endpoint listed separately) Heart rate
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List additional health endpoints (separately). 2 Blood pressure
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List additional health endpoints (separately).3 Mean arterial pressure
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List additional health endpoints (separately).4 Pulse pressure
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List additional health endpoints (separately).5 Heart rhythm (QT interval, QTc interval, QRS duration, ST segment relative to isoelectric line, count of T-wave inversions
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List additional health endpoints (separately).6 Heart rate variability (heart rate variation expressed as standard deviation of the R–R internal [SDNN], count of consecutive normals sinus rhythm that exceed 50 milliseconds (ms) [pNN50], percentage of all counted R–R intervals with successive normal sinus R–R intervals>50 ms, [pNN50%])
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Clinical, physiological, other Physiological
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What is the study design? Controlled Trial
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Randomized or Non-Randomized? NCT
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What were the diagnostics or methods used to measure the outcome? Objective
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Optional: Name of Method or short description Subjects: Sixty-eight undergraduates (48 females and 21 males, average age = 19.8 ± 1.6 years) from the Human Anatomy and Physiology course at Winona State University volunteered for the first exercise examining the effects of Red Bull_ consumption on blood glucose, salivary caffeine, cardiovascular, and renal physiology. Twenty-one upper division students (12 female and 9 males, average age = 22) were recruited for the second exercise examining the effects of Red Bull_ on pain perception and blood pressure when exposed to a physical stressor. All volunteers were self-described as health, with no history of cardiovascular, urinary, digestive or metabolic diseases including but not limited to noninsulin dependent diabetes. Study design and procedures: The first study was a double-blind exercise where the volunteers were assigned to one of four treatments upon arrival at the laboratory. These treatments were Normal Calorie Red Bull_ (250 mL can, 110 cal), Low Calorie Red Bull_ (250 mL, 10 cal), high calorie placebo (250 mL, 110 cal) and low calorie placebo (250 mL, 10 cal). The placebos were prepared with carbonated water, tap water, and dextrose. Banana flavor (FLAVORx_ , Columbia, MD, USA) and green food coloring were added to all beverages to try and mask the flavor of the Red Bull and placebo treatments. Upon completion of the exercise, 38 of the 68 participants were unable to correctly identify their assigned beverage. This study assessed heart rate, blood pressure (systolic and diastolic pressures), ECG’s, blood glucose levels, urine specific gravity, urine formation rates, and saliva caffeine concentrations. The sampling intervals were at 0, 60 and 120 min Red Bull_ consumption. Heart rates and ECG’s were collected on a PowerLab (ADInstruments, Colorado Springs, CO, USA) for 30 sec recordings at each of these intervals. Electrocardiographic analysis consisted of atrial and ventricular ectopy count, QTI: Q–T interval, QTIrc : rate-corrected QT interval, SDNN: heart rate variation change in the ST-segment relative to the isoelectric line, Twave: count of T-wave inversions. Blood pressures were measured by an automated sphygmomanometer (Omron Healthcare Inc., Banncockburn, IL, USA). Blood glucose measurements were collected using Accu-Chek Blood Analyzers (Roche Diagnostics Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA). Urine samples were analyzed with Urisys 1100 (Roche Diagnostic Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA) for specific gravity and pH. In addition, urine volumes were recorded for the 60 and 120 min samples and urine formation rates were calculated. Saliva samples were collected in microcentrifuge tubes and frozen at - 70_ C until solid-phase extraction (Bondesil, CHCl3 , proxyphylline internal standard) and GC_MS analysis on a HP-5MS (30 m 9 0.25 mm 9 0.25 l m) column. Selected-ion chromatograms (m /z = 194) were integrated and peak areas corrected based on response factors generated from standard solutions. Statistical comparisons were made using SAS PROC MIXED to carry out a repeated measures analysis (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). expressed as standard deviation of the R–R interal, pNN50: count of consecutive normals sinus rhythm that exceed 50 milliseconds (ms), pNN50%: percentage of all counted R–R intervals with successive normal sinus R–R intervals[ 50 ms, QRS: QRS duration expressed in ms, ST: The second study assessed blood pressure, heart rate, pain threshold, pain tolerance, and overall pain assessment (VAS) before and directly after a cold pressor test pre- and postprandial Red Bull_ consumption. The cold pressor test by its very nature as a stress test has been shown to increase MAP (Reiser and Ferris 1947 ; Lafleche et al. 1998 ; Bichler et al. 2006 ). Initial blood pressure and heart rate measures were repeatedly taken until three consistent readings were obtained (approximately 20 min). With the cold pressor test, subjects were asked to submerge their non-dominant hand into a 5_ C bath upon the ‘‘start’’ signal. The test duration was limited to 5 min to restrict tissue damage due to cold exposure. Pain threshold (sec) was defined as the elapsed time, the hand was in the cold water bath (5_ C) until the volunteer perceived pain. The pain tolerance (sec) was determined when the volunteer could no longer keep their hand in the cold water or completion of the 5-min time limit. A pulse pressure monitor on a finger of their dominant hand recorded heart rate throughout the duration of the exercise. Consumption of Red Bull_ was 40 min after completion of the first cold pressor test.
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Caffeine (general)
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Coffee, Chocolate, energy drink, gum, medicine/supplement, soda, tea, other?
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Measured or self reported? Measured
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Children, adolescents, adults, or pregnant included? Adults
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What was the reference, comparison, or control group(s)? (e.g. high vs low consumption, number of cups, etc.) Non-caffeine containing high calorie and low calorie placebo.
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What were the listed confounders or modifying factors as stated by the authors? (e.g. multi-variable components of models.  Copy from methods) All volunteers were self-described as health, with no history of cardiovascular, urinary, digestive or metabolic diseases including but not limited to noninsulin dependent diabetes.
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What conflicts of interest were reported? Not discussed.
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Refid 19653067
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What were the sources of funding? Not discussed.
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Results & Comparisons

No Results found.