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Study Title and Description

Acute effects of coffee on endothelial function in healthy subjects.



Key Questions Addressed
1 For [population], is caffeine intake above [exposure dose], compared to intakes [exposure dose] or less, associated with adverse effects on cardiovascular outcomes?
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Primary Publication Information
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TitleData
Title Acute effects of coffee on endothelial function in healthy subjects.
Author S Buscemi,S Verga,JA Batsis,M Donatelli,MR Tranchina,S Belmonte,A Mattina,A Re,G Cerasola,
Country
Year 2010
Numbers

Secondary Publication Information
There are currently no secondary publications defined for this study.


Extraction Form: Cardiovascular Design
Design Details
Question... Follow Up Answer Follow-up Answer
What outcome is being evaluated in this paper? Cardiovascular
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What is the objective of the study (as reported by the authors)? Coffee is the most widely consumed beverage in the world, but its effect on the cardiovascular system has not been fully understood. Coffee contains caffeine and antioxidants, which may influence endothelial function, both of which have not yet been investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the acute effects of coffee on endothelial function measured by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD).
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Provide a general description of the methods as reported by the authors. Information should be extracted based on relevance to the SR (i.e., caffeine related methods) Study design: The study followed a randomized, crossover, double-blind design with each subject receiving two different study treatments, in random order, and repeated on separate days at 5- to 7-day intervals. Anthropometric measurements, routine blood tests and an oral glucose (75 g) tolerance test were obtained in all subjects before participating in the study by MRT, SB, AM, AR and GP, who were blinded to study participant randomization. Subjects were tested in the morning after an overnight fast; women underwent measurements between the 7th and the 21st day from their menstrual cycle. FMD of the brachial artery was performed by the same operator (SB) who was blinded to the participant’s mixture of coffee tested before, 30 min and 60 min after drinking a cup of Italian espresso CC or DC; ultrasound images were video recorded and analyzed by a trained reader who was blinded to the participant’s mixture of coffee tested (SV). A venous blood sample was taken before and 60 min after coffee ingestion. Subjects had continuous electrocardiogram and blood pressure (10 min intervals) recorded for the duration of each test. Coffee testing: Fresh CC or DC was prepared using a commercial automatic machine (easy serving espresso; Italy) by a blinded study nurse. The blinding process involved a coffee envelope that was coded anonymously by the Morettino farm, only to be decoded by means of a code at the conclusion of the study. One cup of coffee consisted of 25 ml of espresso obtained with an average extraction time of 20 s from 7 g of a coffee mixture pressed in packet. Each packet of CC or DC contained a mixture of 65% Robusta (variety Canephora) and Arabica (A Morettino s.p.a., Palermo, Italy). The average caffeine content in 25 ml of CC and DC measured by chromatography–spectrophotometry (Chemical Laboratory, Camera di Commercio Industria Artigianato e Agricoltura, Trieste, Italy) was 130mg and 5 mg, respectively. No addition of sugar or milk was permitted. Assessment of endothelial function. Endothelium-dependent reactivity in the macrocirculation, measured by FMD of the brachial artery, was determined using high-resolution vascular ultrasound (Sonoline G50; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) with a 10MHz linear array transducer. The transducer was held at the same position throughout the test by a stereotactic clamp with micrometer adjustment (EDI Progetti e Sviluppo, Pisa, Italy) to ensure image consistency. Reactive hyperemia was produced by inflating a sphygmomanometer cuff 2 cm below the antecubital fossa to occlude the artery for 5 min at B220–250mm Hg and then deflating it. A video processing system computed the brachial artery diameter in real time by analyzing B-mode ultrasound images (FMD Studio, Institute of Physiology CNR, Pisa, Italy). Briefly, the device captures the analog video signal from the ultrasound equipment. An edge detection algorithm, based on the localization of gray level discontinuities, automatically locates the two walls of the vessel. The diameter is obtained with subpixel precision and temporal resolution of 25 sample(s). The brachial artery diameters were displayed on a graphical interface over a time scale of 9 min. Baseline vessel size was considered the mean of the measures obtained during the first minute. The FMD was calculated as the maximum percentage of increase of the brachial artery diameter over baseline. Laboratory analysis. Basal lipid measurements and uric acid were ascertained using common clinical chemistry methods (IL test cholesterol; IL test high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; IL test triglycerides; IL test uric acid; Instrumentation Laboratory, Milano, Italy). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was calculated according to the Friedewald formula (Friedewald, 1972).
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How many outcome-specific endpoints are evaluated? 2
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What is the (or one of the) endpoint(s) evaluated? (Each endpoint listed separately) Heart rate
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List additional health endpoints (separately). 2 Blood pressure
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List additional health endpoints (separately).3
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List additional health endpoints (separately).4
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List additional health endpoints (separately).5
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List additional health endpoints (separately).6
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Clinical, physiological, other Physiological
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What is the study design? Controlled Trial
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Randomized or Non-Randomized? RCT
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What were the diagnostics or methods used to measure the outcome? Objective
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Optional: Name of Method or short description Endothelium-dependent reactivity in the macrocirculation, measured by FMD of the brachial artery, was determined using high-resolution vascular ultrasound (Sonoline G50; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) with a 10MHz linear array transducer. The transducer was held at the same position throughout the test by a stereotactic clamp with micrometer adjustment (EDI Progetti e Sviluppo, Pisa, Italy) to ensure image consistency. Reactive hyperemia was produced by inflating a sphygmomanometer cuff 2 cm below the antecubital fossa to occlude the artery for 5 min at B220–250mm Hg and then deflating it. A video processing system computed the brachial artery diameter in real time by analyzing B-mode ultrasound images (FMD Studio, Institute of Physiology CNR, Pisa, Italy). Briefly, the device captures the analog video signal from the ultrasound equipment. An edge detection algorithm, based on the localization of gray level discontinuities, automatically locates the two walls of the vessel. The diameter is obtained with subpixel precision and temporal resolution of 25 sample(s). The brachial artery diameters were displayed on a graphical interface over a time scale of 9 min. Baseline vessel size was considered the mean of the measures obtained during the first minute. The FMD was calculated as the maximum percentage of increase of the brachial artery diameter over baseline.
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Caffeine (general)
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Coffee, Chocolate, energy drink, gum, medicine/supplement, soda, tea, other? Coffee
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Measured or self reported? Measured
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Children, adolescents, adults, or pregnant included? Adults
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What was the reference, comparison, or control group(s)? (e.g. high vs low consumption, number of cups, etc.) Decaffeinated coffee
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What were the listed confounders or modifying factors as stated by the authors? (e.g. multi-variable components of models.  Copy from methods) Exclusion criteria included patients with any dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular or systemic disease, any medication treatment, smoking of any tobacco products, pregnancy or lactation in the past 6 months, habitual daily consumption of greater than two cups of coffee or weekly ingestion of more than one commercial caffeinated beverage and abstaining from chocolate or other flavonoid-containing beverages up to the preceding day. Basal pairwise comparisons between the two treatments (CC vs DC) were tested for statistical significance using the paired Student’s t-test. An overall 3_2 ANOVA (analysis of variance) for repeated measures was performed to evaluate the composite effect of the two different (CC and DC) ingested coffees over time (three periods: baseline, and 30 and 60 min) on the parameters of interest. ANOVA for repeated measures was also carried out separately to detect significant changes in variables over time within the two sessions; Bonferroni’s t-test was performed for individual differences between two time points (paired) when appropriate. A two-tailed Po0.05 was considered significant.
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What conflicts of interest were reported? The authors stated they had no conflicts of interest.
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Refid 20125186
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What were the sources of funding? This study was supported in part by the Italian Ministry of Education (ex 60% funds, 2007) and by the Associazione Onlus Nutrizione e Salute, Italy. The authors are gratefully indebted to the voluntary subjects who participated in the study and to Giovanna Seddio and Giovanni De Canzio for their invaluable technical support in the laboratory work.
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Results & Comparisons

No Results found.