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Study Title and Description

Prevalence and incidence of hypertension in adolescent girls.



Key Questions Addressed
1 For [population], is caffeine intake above [exposure dose], compared to intakes [exposure dose] or less, associated with adverse effects on cardiovascular outcomes?
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Primary Publication Information
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TitleData
Title Prevalence and incidence of hypertension in adolescent girls.
Author E Obarzanek,CO Wu,JA Cutler,RE Kavey,GD Pearson,SR Daniels,
Country
Year 2010
Numbers

Secondary Publication Information
There are currently no secondary publications defined for this study.


Extraction Form: Cardiovascular Design
Design Details
Question... Follow Up Answer Follow-up Answer
What outcome is being evaluated in this paper? Cardiovascular
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What is the objective of the study (as reported by the authors)? To estimate the prevalence and incidence of hypertension and prehypertension and associated factors in adolescent girls.
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Provide a general description of the methods as reported by the authors. Information should be extracted based on relevance to the SR (i.e., caffeine related methods) Three centers, University of California, Berkeley, University of Cincinnati/Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, and Westat, Rockville, Maryland, enrolled 2379 girls (1213 African-American, 1166 Caucasian). Areas were selected on the basis of census tract data to include a wide distribution of household income and parental education within each race. The main eligibility criteria were age 9 or 10 years at entry, self-identification as non-Hispanic African- American or Caucasian, and racially concordant parents or guardians. Data collection occurred at clinic centers or home visits between 1986 and 1997 with a standardized protocol. The study design and main results were reported. Ten annual visits were conducted, with follow-up rates of 74% to 95% through the years. Overall, girls attended an average of 8.8 visits (8.6 for Caucasian girls, 9.0 for African-American girls). BP was measured with a standard mercury sphygmomanometer (Baum Desktop with V-Lok cuffs; W.A. Baum, Sprague, New York) with a cuff of appropriate size for arm circumference. Participants were seated with feet resting flat on a surface and right arm resting at heart level. After maximum inflation, the cuff was deflated at a rate of 2 mm Hg per second. The first appearance of 2 consecutive beats determined the first Korotkoff sound (K1). The point of sound muffling determined the fourth Korotkoff sound (K4), and the disappearance of sound determined the fifth Korotkoff sound (K5). Three readings were recorded during the first 5 years, and 4 readings were recorded during the last 5 years, with at least 30 seconds of rest between readings. The first reading was not used. The second and third readings in the first 5 years of the study and the closest 2 of the second, third, and fourth readings in the last 5 years were averaged to determine systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Height and weight were measured while girls were wearing socks and light indoor clothing with a stadiometer and calibrated scale. Waist circumference was measured at the narrowest part of the torso. Demographic and socioeconomic information was determined with self-report provided by the parents or guardian. Reported income was based on 9 categories ranging from <$5000 to $ $75 000, to yield an income score ranging from 1 to 9. Scores for parental education level ranged from 1 to 13, on the basis of 13 categories of education, ranging from 0 to 6 years to graduate school. Age was coded as years. Diet and physical activity were measured with validated methods. Girls provided 3-day food records, which were reviewed by study dietitians at the clinic visit and completed a habitual physical activity patterns questionnaire that assessed frequencies of usual activities. An activity score was derived on the basis of an activity code ranging from 0 to 5 in order of activity intensity and also took into account duration and frequency of the activity. On this activity questionnaire, girls additionally were asked how many hours per week they usually watched television and videos.
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How many outcome-specific endpoints are evaluated? 1
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What is the (or one of the) endpoint(s) evaluated? (Each endpoint listed separately) Hypertension
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List additional health endpoints (separately). 2
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List additional health endpoints (separately).3
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List additional health endpoints (separately).4
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List additional health endpoints (separately).5
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List additional health endpoints (separately).6
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Clinical, physiological, other Physiological
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What is the study design? Cohort
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Randomized or Non-Randomized?
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What were the diagnostics or methods used to measure the outcome? Objective
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Optional: Name of Method or short description BP was measured with a standard mercury sphygmomanometer (Baum Desktop with V-Lok cuffs; W.A. Baum, Sprague, New York) with a cuff of appropriate size for arm circumference.
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Caffeine (general) Caffeine (general)
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Coffee, Chocolate, energy drink, gum, medicine/supplement, soda, tea, other?
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Measured or self reported? Self-report
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Children, adolescents, adults, or pregnant included? Children, Adolescents
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What was the reference, comparison, or control group(s)? (e.g. high vs low consumption, number of cups, etc.) Girls that developed hypertension vs. those that did not.
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What were the listed confounders or modifying factors as stated by the authors? (e.g. multi-variable components of models.  Copy from methods) Means and SEs for a selected set of covariates measured at baseline were computed for girls who had 2-visit hypertension and who never had 2-visit hypertension between age 10 and 18 years. P values from the F tests were calculated separately for each covariate. Education and income levels were coded (1 to 13 for education and 1 to 9 for income), and these scores were used for entry into regression models. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the effects of race and other baseline covariates on the incidence of 2-visit hypertension. Variable estimates and their corresponding SEs, Z-scores, odds ratios, and P values were calculated. Multivariate logistic models were also evaluated with the stepwise variable selection procedure. Missing data in the study were assumed missing completely at random. The Splus 8 statistical software package was used (2008, TIBCO Software, Inc., Palo Alto, California).
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What conflicts of interest were reported? They authors stated that had no COI.
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Refid 20488454
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What were the sources of funding? Not mentioned.
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Results & Comparisons

No Results found.