Advanced Search

Study Preview



Study Title and Description

Coffee, nutritional status, and renal artery resistive index.



Key Questions Addressed
1 For [population], is caffeine intake above [exposure dose], compared to intakes [exposure dose] or less, associated with adverse effects on cardiovascular outcomes?
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |

Primary Publication Information
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
TitleData
Title Coffee, nutritional status, and renal artery resistive index.
Author GM Trovato,C Pirri,GF Martines,F Trovato,D Catalano,
Country
Year 2010
Numbers

Secondary Publication Information
There are currently no secondary publications defined for this study.


Extraction Form: Cardiovascular Design
Design Details
Question... Follow Up Answer Follow-up Answer
What outcome is being evaluated in this paper? Cardiovascular
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
What is the objective of the study (as reported by the authors)? The aim of this study is to investigate whether coffee habits, and/or quantity of coffee consumption, have any relationship with renal resistive index (RRI), a hallmark of arterial stiffness (AS). The relationship of AS with nutritional status assessed by body composition and serum albumin, insulin resistance (assessed by HOMA), and renal function assessed by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is concurrently investigated.
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Provide a general description of the methods as reported by the authors. Information should be extracted based on relevance to the SR (i.e., caffeine related methods) Patients and methods: This study was carried out with 221 consecutive patients referred to our day hospital for clinical noninvasive assessment and nutritional counseling. Patients with diseases other than hypertension were considered ineligible according to the exclusion criteria detailed below. A total of 124 consecutive essential hypertension (EH) patients, already treated with a satisfactory pharmacological response for at least 2 years, were included in this study. Moreover, 97 nonhypertensive patients were also considered eligible according to the same criteria. Patients with congestive heart failure, renal failure (creatinine clearance below 75 mL/min/1.73 m2 ), and oncological disease, thyroid disease, alcohol abuse above 20 g/die, and severe liver disease were preliminarily excluded. Arrhythmias influence the pulse wave pattern, so measurements made in the presence of premature beats and patients with atrial fibrillation were excluded. Patients with any history of diabetes mellitus, established by a fasting glucose level >/= 126 mg/ dL or a HbA1c >/- 6.5%, or those under treatment for other conditions, apart from well-controlled arterial hypertension, were not considered eligible for this study. Daily users of Coca-Cola and tea were preliminarily excluded if an estimated daily intake of caffeine with these beverages above 100 mg (the content of a cup of coffee) was reported; in this regard, measurements were estimated according to current dietary content tables. Coffee habits were defined according to the absolute number of coffee cups (only espresso coffee), and also graded as 1 (0 cup of coffee/day), 2 (1–2 cups of coffee/ day), and 3 (>/= 3 cups of coffee/day). As a general clinical conduct, all patients self-measured their own BP three times a day throughout this study (in the morning before drug intake, in the afternoon, and in the late evening) for a 3-day period, before every monthly scheduled visit (self-BP measurements – SBPM), registering their self-measurements on a form: the prevailing SBPM value was determined from the average of the nine measurements. Both conventional office BP measurements and SBPM were always performed on the nondominant arm, with the subject in sitting position, after at least 5 minutes of rest, using the same type of fully automated oscillometric device for arm BPM (Visomat Comfort II – Roche Diagnostics Italia, Monza, Italy) validated by the German Hypertension Society and by the Italian Ministry of Health and according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension. Ultrasound examination is performed by the same echographist to reduce inter-observer variability. The physician is unaware of clinical details of any patients at the time of the procedure; a GE echo-color-Doppler equipment (GE Logiq 5 Expert US, manufactured by GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI, USA), high resolution, with real-time sectional scan transducers was used. Renal color-Doppler echography is performed assessing intra-parenchymal renal artery mean velocity (mVRA) and intra-parenchymal renal artery RI ([peak systolic velocity – end diastolic velocity]/peak systolic velocity). After recording pulse and BP, the first measurement is the size of the left and right kidney. For orientation purposes, perfusion in the whole of the left and right kidneys is then checked using color duplex ultrasonography and the main trunk of the renal artery is displayed. If duplex ultrasonography does not reveal any abnormalities in size or perfusion, three measurements for each kidney are taken by pulsed Doppler within 5 min, in the vicinity of the interlobar artery. RRI is calculated as the average value of all measurements taken. RRI threshold is defined by the 75th percentile derived by measurements of all eligible patients of this study.
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
How many outcome-specific endpoints are evaluated? 3
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
What is the (or one of the) endpoint(s) evaluated? (Each endpoint listed separately) Renal resistive index (RRI)
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
List additional health endpoints (separately). 2 Blood pressure (SBP, DPB, pulse pressure)
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
List additional health endpoints (separately).3 Cholesterol (total, LDL, HDL)
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
List additional health endpoints (separately).4
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
List additional health endpoints (separately).5
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
List additional health endpoints (separately).6
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Clinical, physiological, other Physiological
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
What is the study design? Cohort
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Randomized or Non-Randomized?
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
What were the diagnostics or methods used to measure the outcome? Objective
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Optional: Name of Method or short description all patients self-measured their own BP three times a day throughout this study (in the morning before drug intake, in the afternoon, and in the late evening) for a 3-day period, before every monthly scheduled visit (self-BP measurements – SBPM), registering their self-measurements on a form: the prevailing SBPM value was determined from the average of the nine measurements. Both conventional office BP measurements and SBPM were always performed on the nondominant arm. A GE echo-color-Doppler equipment (GE Logiq 5 Expert US, manufactured by GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI, USA), high resolution, with real-time sectional scan transducers was used.
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Caffeine (general)
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Coffee, Chocolate, energy drink, gum, medicine/supplement, soda, tea, other? coffee
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Measured or self reported? Self-report
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Children, adolescents, adults, or pregnant included? Adults
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
What was the reference, comparison, or control group(s)? (e.g. high vs low consumption, number of cups, etc.) Coffee (espresso) non-users
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
What were the listed confounders or modifying factors as stated by the authors? (e.g. multi-variable components of models.  Copy from methods) Correlation analysis of RRI and, respectively, of quantity of coffee cups versus all considered measurement is performed by Spearman’s and Pearson’s statistics according to the type of variables. Multiple linear regression is used to find predictor(s) to RRI among the considered variables.
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
What conflicts of interest were reported? No conflicted declared by the authors.
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Refid 20954972
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
What were the sources of funding? Not mentioned.
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |




Results & Comparisons

No Results found.