Advanced Search

Study Preview



Study Title and Description

Differential contributions of theobromine and caffeine on mood, psychomotor performance and blood pressure.



Key Questions Addressed
1 For [population], is caffeine intake above [exposure dose], compared to intakes [exposure dose] or less, associated with adverse effects on cardiovascular outcomes?
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |

Primary Publication Information
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
TitleData
Title Differential contributions of theobromine and caffeine on mood, psychomotor performance and blood pressure.
Author ES Mitchell,M Slettenaar,N vd Meer,C Transler,L Jans,F Quadt,M Berry,
Country
Year 2011
Numbers

Secondary Publication Information
There are currently no secondary publications defined for this study.


Extraction Form: Cardiovascular Design
Design Details
Question... Follow Up Answer Follow-up Answer
What outcome is being evaluated in this paper? Cardiovascular
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
What is the objective of the study (as reported by the authors)? The combination of theobromine and caffeine, methylxanthines found in chocolate, has previously been shown to improve mood and cognition. However, it is unknown whether these molecules act synergistically. This study tested the hypothesis that a combination of caffeine and theobromine has synergistic effects on cognition, mood and blood pressure in 24 healthy female subjects.
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Provide a general description of the methods as reported by the authors. Information should be extracted based on relevance to the SR (i.e., caffeine related methods) This study had a placebo controlled; double blind, randomized, cross-over design. All subjects received 4 different treatments contained in capsules: 700 mg theobromine, 120 mg caffeine, 700 mg theobromine+120 mg caffeine or placebo (cellulose). Between measurement days there was a 1 week washout period to ensure there would be no effect of the previous treatment. On every measurement day, mood and cognition tests, plus blood pressure were taken at baseline, and then every 60 min during each of the three test sessions (except for blood pressure which was only taken at session 1 and 3), within strict margins after consumption of the test product for 3 h.
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
How many outcome-specific endpoints are evaluated? 2
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
What is the (or one of the) endpoint(s) evaluated? (Each endpoint listed separately) Blood pressure
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
List additional health endpoints (separately). 2 Heart rate
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
List additional health endpoints (separately).3
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
List additional health endpoints (separately).4
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
List additional health endpoints (separately).5
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
List additional health endpoints (separately).6
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Clinical, physiological, other Physiological
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
What is the study design? Controlled Trial
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Randomized or Non-Randomized? RCT
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
What were the diagnostics or methods used to measure the outcome? Objective
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Optional: Name of Method or short description No specific information provided other than it was taken at baseline and 1 and 3 hours after administration of caffeine and placebo treatments.
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Caffeine (general) Caffeine (general)
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Coffee, Chocolate, energy drink, gum, medicine/supplement, soda, tea, other?
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Measured or self reported? Measured
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Children, adolescents, adults, or pregnant included? Adults
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
What was the reference, comparison, or control group(s)? (e.g. high vs low consumption, number of cups, etc.) Placebo group; also baseline measurements were taken.
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
What were the listed confounders or modifying factors as stated by the authors? (e.g. multi-variable components of models.  Copy from methods) Exclusion criteria included the presence of a medical condition, pregnancy, breastfeeding, night shift work, excessive exercise, alcohol consumption of more than 21 units per week or blood pressure above 160/90 mm Hg. Sample size was determined via power analysis of data from a previous study on mood effects from theobromine and caffeine [1]. A minimum of 24 subjects was necessary to detect a critical difference of 15% between treatment groups with a power of 0.8 and alpha=0.0125 (1-sided). The data was analyzed using SAS version 9.1 software. The analyses were calculated via 2Å~2Å~4Å~3 ANOVA including the fixed factors Caffeine (present, absent), Theobromine (present, absent), Visit and Session, and also as repeated measures ANOVAs using the initial baseline data of each session as a covariate, and with Subjects as a random factor. A Tukey–Kramer adjustment has been used for multiple comparisons.
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
What conflicts of interest were reported? Not discussed.
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Refid 21839757
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
What were the sources of funding? Not discussed.
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |




Results & Comparisons

No Results found.