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Study Title and Description

The immediate and short-term chemosensory impacts of coffee and caffeine on cardiovascular activity.



Key Questions Addressed
1 For [population], is caffeine intake above [exposure dose], compared to intakes [exposure dose] or less, associated with adverse effects on cardiovascular outcomes?
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Primary Publication Information
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TitleData
Title The immediate and short-term chemosensory impacts of coffee and caffeine on cardiovascular activity.
Author MK McMullen,JM Whitehouse,G Shine,PA Whitton,A Towell,
Country
Year 2011
Numbers

Secondary Publication Information
There are currently no secondary publications defined for this study.


Extraction Form: Cardiovascular Design
Design Details
Question... Follow Up Answer Follow-up Answer
What outcome is being evaluated in this paper? Cardiovascular
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What is the objective of the study (as reported by the authors)? To evaluate the immediate and short-term chemosensory impacts of coffee and caffeine on cardiovascular activity.
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Provide a general description of the methods as reported by the authors. Information should be extracted based on relevance to the SR (i.e., caffeine related methods) Participants were selected as habitual coffee and tea drinkers (two to six servings daily) who enjoy drinking unadulterated espresso coffee. Participants were required to continue with their habitual caffeine consumption for the duration of the study and compliance was verbally confirmed prior to each session. Espresso coffee was chosen as the test form because it is straightforward to produce as a standard serving and is traditionally consumed in small volumes. Regular and decaffeinated ‘‘medium roasted Columbia’’ whole coffee beans were used for testing. A double espresso of approximately 67 mL made from 16.5 g of beans was produced for both types of beans using an espresso machine. The espresso caffeine content was analysed using HPLC and estimated at 130 mg for regular coffee and <10 mg for decaffeinated coffee. Capsules were administered with 67 mL of room-temperature water so that fluid intake was constant.
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How many outcome-specific endpoints are evaluated? 2
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What is the (or one of the) endpoint(s) evaluated? (Each endpoint listed separately) Heart rate
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List additional health endpoints (separately). 2 Blood pressure
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List additional health endpoints (separately).3
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List additional health endpoints (separately).4
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List additional health endpoints (separately).5
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List additional health endpoints (separately).6
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Clinical, physiological, other Physiological
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What is the study design? Controlled Trial
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Randomized or Non-Randomized? RCT
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What were the diagnostics or methods used to measure the outcome? Objective
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Optional: Name of Method or short description Participants were seated in a quiet room at a temperature of 21 to 23 degrees C with a haemodynamic monitoring system (Finometer, Finapres Medical Systems, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) attached to their left hand. The Finometer records the finger-pulse contour, providing continuous beat-to-beat measures of a number of CVS parameters. An infrared plethysmograph in a finger cuff records (200 Hz) the pulsation of the arterial diameter. Cuff pressure clamps the artery’s unstretched diameter and is attuned so that finger arterial pressure is reflected in the cuff pressure. As well as providing enhanced sensitivity due to the availability of continuous BP readings, the Finometer also provides CVS measures that are useful for assessing changes of the ANS. The measures include HR, heart period (HP), ejection time (ET), dp/dt (contraction force) and brachial SP and DP. Modelflow software, which is integrated into the Finometer system, automatically computes stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), peripheral resistance (PR), arterial compliance (AC) and aortic (characteristic) impedance (AI), as well as the body-surface area adjusted values (Dubois and Dubois formula): ‘‘indexed stroke volume’’ (SVI), ‘‘indexed cardiac output’’ (COI) or the ‘‘cardiac index’’ and ‘‘indexed peripheral resistance’’ (PRI) values. The indexed values are reported rather than the non-indexed values of SV, CO and PR values. Additionally, the diastolic interval (DI) (HP minus ET) was calculated in the statistical analysis program. Participants sat for 30 min post-ingestion before standing for three and a half minutes. The test sessions were conducted in silence, with the participants being permitted to read but not write while seated. The post-ingestion phases were: Phase 1: 0 to 5 min; Phase 2: 10 to 15 min; Phase 3: 25 to 30 min; Phase 4: 31.5 to 33.5 min. Phase 1 commenced 30 s after swallowing. During pre-ingestion and Phases 1, 2 and 3 the participants were seated while in Phase 4 participants were standing. The period 30 to 31.5 min was allowed for body movement and the orthostatic reaction.
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Caffeine (general) Caffeine (general)
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Coffee, Chocolate, energy drink, gum, medicine/supplement, soda, tea, other? Coffee
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Measured or self reported? Measured
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Children, adolescents, adults, or pregnant included? Adults
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What was the reference, comparison, or control group(s)? (e.g. high vs low consumption, number of cups, etc.) Placebo group
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What were the listed confounders or modifying factors as stated by the authors? (e.g. multi-variable components of models.  Copy from methods) Hypertensives (systolic pressure (SP) >140 mmHg or diastolic pressure (DP) >90 mm Hg), smokers, pregnant women and those on prescribed medication were excluded from the study.
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What conflicts of interest were reported? Not discussed.
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Refid 21879101
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What were the sources of funding? Authors stated no external funding or sponsoring was involved in this study.
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Results & Comparisons

No Results found.