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Study Title and Description

Genetic determinants of blood pressure responses to caffeine drinking.



Key Questions Addressed
1 For [population], is caffeine intake above [exposure dose], compared to intakes [exposure dose] or less, associated with adverse effects on cardiovascular outcomes?
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Primary Publication Information
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TitleData
Title Genetic determinants of blood pressure responses to caffeine drinking.
Author G Renda,M Zimarino,I Antonucci,A Tatasciore,B Ruggieri,T Bucciarelli,T Prontera,L Stuppia,R De Caterina,
Country
Year 2012
Numbers

Secondary Publication Information
There are currently no secondary publications defined for this study.


Extraction Form: Cardiovascular Design
Design Details
Question... Follow Up Answer Follow-up Answer
What outcome is being evaluated in this paper? Cardiovascular
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What is the objective of the study (as reported by the authors)? We evaluated acute blood pressure (BP) responses to caffeine and explored whether they are influenced by candidate gene variants affecting caffeine metabolism (for cytochrome P450 1A2), adenosine metabolism (for adenosine receptor and AMP deaminase), or catecholamine receptors.
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Provide a general description of the methods as reported by the authors. Information should be extracted based on relevance to the SR (i.e., caffeine related methods) Study participants were equipped with an automated BP monitoring device (Spacelabs 90207; 26), which was set to measure BP and HR at 6-min intervals. Each subject received a 40-mL dose of a decaffeinated preparation to which caffeine was added at a dose of 3 mg/kg (caf; for comparison: 1 cup espresso has about 80 mg caffeine); the control consisted of the decaffeinated vehicle preparation without added caffeine (decaf). The 2 preparations were administered in a double-blind fashion in random order on the basis of a randomization list. Plasma caffeine concentrations were assayed in 3 heparin-treated blood samples taken before and 30 min and 2 h after coffee consumption. Caffeine was measured by inverse-phase HPLC (27). Plasma catecholamines, including adrenaline and noradrenaline, were measured in 2 heparin-treated blood samples obtained before and 2 h after coffee administration by HPLC (28).
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How many outcome-specific endpoints are evaluated? 3
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What is the (or one of the) endpoint(s) evaluated? (Each endpoint listed separately) Heart rate
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List additional health endpoints (separately). 2 Blood pressure
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List additional health endpoints (separately).3 Plasma catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline)
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List additional health endpoints (separately).4
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List additional health endpoints (separately).5
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List additional health endpoints (separately).6
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Clinical, physiological, other Physiological
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What is the study design? Controlled Trial
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Randomized or Non-Randomized? RCT
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What were the diagnostics or methods used to measure the outcome? Objective
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Optional: Name of Method or short description Plasma caffeine concentrations were assayed in 3 heparin-treated blood samples taken before and 30 min and 2 h after coffee consumption. Caffeine was measured by inverse-phase HPLC (27). Plasma catecholamines, including adrenaline and noradrenaline, were measured in 2 heparin-treated blood samples obtained before and 2 h after coffee administration by HPLC. BP and HR measurements were repeated at 6-min intervals for 2 hr.
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Caffeine (general) Caffeine (general)
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Coffee, Chocolate, energy drink, gum, medicine/supplement, soda, tea, other? Coffee
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Measured or self reported? Measured
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Children, adolescents, adults, or pregnant included? Adults
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What was the reference, comparison, or control group(s)? (e.g. high vs low consumption, number of cups, etc.) Decaffeinated vs. caffeinated coffee preparation [for the exposed group, the subjects received a 40 mL dose of a decaffeinated preparation to which 3 mg/kg caffeine was added] . Decaffeinated coffee was the control group.
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What were the listed confounders or modifying factors as stated by the authors? (e.g. multi-variable components of models.  Copy from methods) The effect of each genetic variable on the BP (either mean or peak) response to the intake of coffee with and without caffeine was analyzed first with univariable linear regression analysis considering BP variables as continuous. Next, we applied a conditional logistic regression model using BP variables as discrete; the null hypothesis of no association was tested with the LRT. For each genetic variant, a departure from a per allele pattern of inheritance was assessed by comparing, with the use of an LRT, the model that does not assume any model for the effect (each genotype is allowed to have its own effect) and the model assuming a per allele model (the effect of the heterozygotes is half way between the effect of the wild-type and the mutant homozygotes). Evidence of a departure from a per allele model is given by a P value for the LRT being statistically significant. The effect of each genetic factor was expressed as the OR and its 95% CI for homozygotes of a specific gene variant to have BP changes above the median. ORs were computed from the corresponding estimated regression coefficients in the model and their SEs. A P value ,0.05 was considered significant, unless otherwise indicated.
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What conflicts of interest were reported? No conflicts were reported by the authors.
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Refid 22170367
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What were the sources of funding? Supported by grants from the Institute for Scientific Information on Coffee (ISIC), Entre deux Villes, La Tour de Peilz, Switzerland, and the Italian Istituto Nazionale Ricerche Cardiovascolari (INRC), Bologna, Italy.
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Results & Comparisons

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