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Study Title and Description

Differential cognitive effects of energy drink ingredients: caffeine, taurine, and glucose.



Key Questions Addressed
1 For [population], is caffeine intake above [exposure dose], compared to intakes [exposure dose] or less, associated with adverse effects on cardiovascular outcomes?
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Primary Publication Information
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TitleData
Title Differential cognitive effects of energy drink ingredients: caffeine, taurine, and glucose.
Author GE Giles,CR Mahoney,TT Brunyé,AL Gardony,HA Taylor,RB Kanarek,
Country
Year 2012
Numbers

Secondary Publication Information
There are currently no secondary publications defined for this study.


Extraction Form: Cardiovascular Design
Design Details
Question... Follow Up Answer Follow-up Answer
What outcome is being evaluated in this paper? Cardiovascular
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What is the objective of the study (as reported by the authors)? We evaluated the effects of caffeine, taurine, and glucose alone and in combination on cognitive performance and mood in 24-hour caffeine-abstained habitual caffeine consumers.
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Provide a general description of the methods as reported by the authors. Information should be extracted based on relevance to the SR (i.e., caffeine related methods) We used a double-blind, mixed factor, repeated measures design with caffeine and taurine treatment as within participants factors and glucose treatment as a between participants factor. All participants completed the four caffeine and taurine treatments: 1) 0 mg caffeine, 0 mg taurine; 2) 0 mg caffeine, 2000 mg taurine; 3) 200 mg caffeine, 0 mg taurine and 4) 200 mg caffeine and 2000 mg taurine. These treatments were crossed with glucose, such that half of the participants were administered glucose, 50 g (9 male, 15 female), and half were administered placebo, 50 g Stevia (8 male, 16 female). The values chosen for glucose, caffeine and taurine approximate those found in the commonly consumed energy drink Monster® (160 mg caffeine, 2000 mg taurine, 52 g sugar) and are no more than could be purchased from a variety of commercially available products. Caffeine and taurine were administered in identical capsule form with water. Treatment order was counterbalanced across participants using a Latin square. Glucose or placebo was administered as a 500-ml drink (250 ml glucose+250 ml sparkling water; 250 ml placebo+250 ml sparkling water). The placebo contained artificial sweeteners so that it was matched for appearance and taste with the experimental beverage. Adherence to the caffeine abstinence period was assessed using a caffeine withdrawal questionnaire,which confirmed that participants were in a state of caffeine withdrawal (e.g. caffeine reduced feelings of headache: caffeine=−.535±.537; no caffeine=.078±.042; for complete results, see Section 3.1). Heart rate data was collected continuously throughout each test session using Equivital® heart rate monitors.
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How many outcome-specific endpoints are evaluated? 1
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What is the (or one of the) endpoint(s) evaluated? (Each endpoint listed separately) Heart rate
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List additional health endpoints (separately). 2
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List additional health endpoints (separately).3
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List additional health endpoints (separately).4
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List additional health endpoints (separately).5
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List additional health endpoints (separately).6
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Clinical, physiological, other Physiological
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What is the study design? Controlled Trial
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Randomized or Non-Randomized? RCT
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What were the diagnostics or methods used to measure the outcome? Objective
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Optional: Name of Method or short description Heart rate data was collected continuously throughout each test session using Equivital® heart rate monitors.
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Caffeine (general) Caffeine (general)
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Coffee, Chocolate, energy drink, gum, medicine/supplement, soda, tea, other?
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Measured or self reported? Measured
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Children, adolescents, adults, or pregnant included? Adults
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What was the reference, comparison, or control group(s)? (e.g. high vs low consumption, number of cups, etc.) 1) 0 mg caffeine, 0 mg taurine; 2) 0 mg caffeine, 2000 mg taurine; 3) 200 mg caffeine, 0 mg taurine and 4) 200 mg caffeine and 2000 mg taurine. These treatments were crossed with glucose, such that half of the participants were administered glucose, 50 g (9 male, 15 female), and half were administered placebo, 50 g Stevia (8 male, 16 female). The values chosen for glucose, caffeine and taurine approximate those found in the commonly consumed energy drink Monster® (160 mg caffeine, 2000 mg taurine, 52 g sugar) and are no more than could be purchased from a variety of commercially available products. Caffeine and taurine were administered in identical capsule form with water.
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What were the listed confounders or modifying factors as stated by the authors? (e.g. multi-variable components of models.  Copy from methods) Analyses of the questionnaires, heart rate and saliva data were conducted using an Analyses of Variance (ANOVA) with Caffeine (present, absent), Taurine (present, absent) and Time (change scores; 60 min-baseline, 120 min-baseline) as within-participant variables and Glucose (present, absent) as a between-participant variable. Analyses of the ANT task consisted of repeated measures ANOVA with Caffeine (present, absent) and Taurine (present, absent) as within-participant variables and Glucose (present, absent) as a between-participant variable for each attention network: orienting, alerting, and executive control.
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What conflicts of interest were reported? Not discussed.
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Refid 22819803
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What were the sources of funding? Not discussed.
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Results & Comparisons

No Results found.