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Study Title and Description

The effect of a caffeinated energy drink on various psychological measures during submaximal cycling.



Key Questions Addressed
1 For [population], is caffeine intake above [exposure dose], compared to intakes [exposure dose] or less, associated with adverse effects on cardiovascular outcomes?
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Primary Publication Information
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TitleData
Title The effect of a caffeinated energy drink on various psychological measures during submaximal cycling.
Author MJ Duncan,J Hankey,
Country
Year 2013
Numbers

Secondary Publication Information
There are currently no secondary publications defined for this study.


Extraction Form: Cardiovascular Design
Design Details
Question... Follow Up Answer Follow-up Answer
What outcome is being evaluated in this paper? Cardiovascular
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What is the objective of the study (as reported by the authors)? The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a caffeine containing energy drink on various psychological measures during 60 min submaximal cycling in a population of recreationally-active individuals.
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Provide a general description of the methods as reported by the authors. Information should be extracted based on relevance to the SR (i.e., caffeine related methods) Design: This study employed a (2 x 2) within-participants double-blind cross-over design whereby participants visited the laboratory on 3 occasions at the same time of day in a well rested and well hydrated state. All participants were asked to refrain from vigorous exercise and maintain normal dietary patterns in the 48 h prior to testing and were asked not to consume caffeine for 48 h before testing to control for the effects of caffeine already consumed. Experimental protocol: Conditions, separated by 48–72 h, were randomised and consisted of a caffeinated energy drink condition (where 179 mg of caffeine in the form of ‘Quick Energy’ a caffeinated energy drink was diluted into 250 ml of artificially sweetened water) and a placebo condition (where 250 ml of artificially sweetened water drink was consumed). Solutions were presented to participants in an opaque sports bottle to prevent the researchers administering the solutions or the participants from actually seeing the solutions themselves. The solutions were also matched for taste prior to the experimental protocols commencing. This was achieved in our laboratory by using various combinations of artificially sweetened water and was verified using blind taste tests with 3 naive volunteers who were unaware of the purpose of the study being conducted. The energy drink consumed contained 179 mg caffeine alongside a matrix of the following ingredients; Vitamins B3, 6, 9, 12, tyrosine, taurine, malic acid and glucuronolactone in a total volume of 1024 mg combined. Solutions were consumed 60 min before each exercise trial as plasma caffeine concentration is maximal 1 h after ingestion of caffeine [2]. A caffeine washout period of 48 h was employed prior to any testing taking place. During each of the cycling trials, heart rate was monitored (Polar RS400, Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland) continuously and assessed every 10 min.
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How many outcome-specific endpoints are evaluated? 1
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What is the (or one of the) endpoint(s) evaluated? (Each endpoint listed separately) Heart rate.
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List additional health endpoints (separately). 2
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List additional health endpoints (separately).3
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List additional health endpoints (separately).4
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List additional health endpoints (separately).5
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List additional health endpoints (separately).6
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Clinical, physiological, other Physiological
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What is the study design? Controlled Trial
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Randomized or Non-Randomized? RCT
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What were the diagnostics or methods used to measure the outcome? Objective
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Optional: Name of Method or short description During each of the cycling trials, heart rate was monitored (Polar RS400, Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland) continuously and assessed every 10 min.
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Caffeine (general) Caffeine (general)
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Coffee, Chocolate, energy drink, gum, medicine/supplement, soda, tea, other?
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Measured or self reported? Measured
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Children, adolescents, adults, or pregnant included? Adults
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What was the reference, comparison, or control group(s)? (e.g. high vs low consumption, number of cups, etc.) Placebo ( 250 ml of artificially sweetened water drink was consumed) vs. 'Quick Energy' drink (containing 179 mg caffeine and Vitamins B3, 6, 9, 12, tyrosine, taurine,malic acid and glucuronolactone) + exercise
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What were the listed confounders or modifying factors as stated by the authors? (e.g. multi-variable components of models.  Copy from methods) Participants were excluded if they had a musculoskeletal injury or cardiovascular condition which would restrict exercise performance or were a heavy habitual caffeine user. Any changes in HR, RPE and muscle pain perception were analysed using a series of 2 (substance: placebo vs energy drink) x 7 (time) Å~ 2 (gender) ways repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Data for Bla were analysed using a 2 (substance: placebo vs energy drink) x 4 (time) x 2 (gender) ways repeated measures ANOVA. Any changes in mood state and RTIPE were assessed using a series of 2 (substance: placebo vs energy drink) x 3 (time) x 2 (gender)ways repeated measures ANOVA. Where any differences were found Bonferroni posthoc pairwise comparisons were used to determine where they lay and partial η2 was used as a measure of effect size. All data were checked for sphericity and where the assumption of sphericity was violated, Greenhouse–Geisser corrections were employed. A P value of 0.05 was used to establish statistical significance and the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, Ill) Version 18.0 was used for all analyses.
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What conflicts of interest were reported? "The authors do not have financial interests concerning the outcome of this investigation."
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Refid 23542532
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What were the sources of funding? "The authors would like to thank Viva Beverages Ltd for providing the study material."
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Results & Comparisons

No Results found.