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Study Title and Description

Ingesting a preworkout supplement containing caffeine, creatine, β-alanine, amino acids, and B vitamins for 28 days is both safe and efficacious in recreationally active men.



Key Questions Addressed
1 For [population], is caffeine intake above [exposure dose], compared to intakes [exposure dose] or less, associated with adverse effects on cardiovascular outcomes?
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Primary Publication Information
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TitleData
Title Ingesting a preworkout supplement containing caffeine, creatine, β-alanine, amino acids, and B vitamins for 28 days is both safe and efficacious in recreationally active men.
Author KL Kendall,JR Moon,CM Fairman,BD Spradley,CY Tai,PH Falcone,LR Carson,MM Mosman,JM Joy,MP Kim,ER Serrano,EN Esposito,
Country
Year 2014
Numbers

Secondary Publication Information
There are currently no secondary publications defined for this study.


Extraction Form: Cardiovascular Design
Design Details
Question... Follow Up Answer Follow-up Answer
What outcome is being evaluated in this paper? Cardiovascular
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What is the objective of the study (as reported by the authors)? The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of consuming a preworkout supplement (SUP) containing caffeine, creatine, β-alanine, amino acids, and B vitamins for 28 days.
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Provide a general description of the methods as reported by the authors. Information should be extracted based on relevance to the SR (i.e., caffeine related methods) Study design: In a double-blind, placebo (PL)-controlled study, 17 recreationally trained men were randomly assigned to either the PL (n = 8; age, 22 ± 4.8 years; height, 179.0 ± 9.5 cm; weight: 92.2 ± 15.4 kg; %fat, 18.3% ± 6.3%; and fat-free mass [FFM], 74.7 ± 8.9 kg) or SUP (n = 9; age, 20.0 ± 1.2 years; height, 181.0 ± 5.0 cm; weight, 78.0 ± 13.1 kg; %fat, 13.1% ± 4.2%; and FFM, 67.3 ± 8.5 kg) group. All pretesting subject characteristics were not significantly different between the PL and SUP groups (P > .06). Participants ingested one full scoop (46 g) every day for at least 28 days either 20 minutes before they exercised or ad libitum on nonexercise days. All participants were required to take the full serving in one sitting on both exercise and nonexercise days. The SUP, marketed as Assault, (Denver, CO, USA) contained BCAAs (6 g), creatine (5 g), β-alanine (4 g), citrulline malate (1.5 g), and caffeine (300mg). The PL was flavored maltodextrin, similar in color and taste to the SUP formulation. Participants recorded the date and time the SUP was taken on a spreadsheet that was located on the SUP jug (in place of a label) and returned all remaining product upon completion of the study. Two-day food logs analyzed before the start of the investigation, indicated that participants consumed no caffeine to moderate amounts of caffeine in their normal diet with no heavy caffeine users identified. Participants consuming more than 500 mg of caffeine daily were excluded from the study. Participants reported to all testing sessions in a fasted state (12 hours with ad libitum water) after a 48-hour period of abstinence from strenuous exercise. Resting heart rate and BP was taken using an automated BP cuff (Omron BP785; Omron Healthcare, Palatine, IL, USA). The average of 3 tests with 60 seconds between tests was recorded and used for analysis.
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How many outcome-specific endpoints are evaluated? 2
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What is the (or one of the) endpoint(s) evaluated? (Each endpoint listed separately) Heart rate
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List additional health endpoints (separately). 2 Blood pressure
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List additional health endpoints (separately).3
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List additional health endpoints (separately).4
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List additional health endpoints (separately).5
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List additional health endpoints (separately).6
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Clinical, physiological, other Physiological
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What is the study design? Controlled Trial
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Randomized or Non-Randomized? RCT
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What were the diagnostics or methods used to measure the outcome? Objective
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Optional: Name of Method or short description Resting heart rate and BP was taken using an automated BP cuff (Omron BP785; Omron Healthcare, Palatine, IL, USA). The average of 3 tests with 60 seconds between tests was recorded and used for analysis.
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Caffeine (general)
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Coffee, Chocolate, energy drink, gum, medicine/supplement, soda, tea, other? Medicine/Supplement
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Measured or self reported? Measured
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Children, adolescents, adults, or pregnant included? Adults
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What was the reference, comparison, or control group(s)? (e.g. high vs low consumption, number of cups, etc.) Placebo supplement was flavored maltodextrin, similar in color and taste to the test supplement formulation.
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What were the listed confounders or modifying factors as stated by the authors? (e.g. multi-variable components of models.  Copy from methods) Differences in renal and hepatic function, along with HR, BP, body composition, and performance measures between pretests and posttests and the SUPs were analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance (time [presupplementation-postsupplementation] x drink [SUP vs PL]). Significant interactions between time and SUP were analyzed using post hoc dependent t tests. Significant main effects for time and for SUP were analyzed using Bonferroni post hoc tests to account for multiple comparisons by maintaining familywise error rates. A P < .05 was considered significant for this investigation. All analysis of variance assumptions were met, and analyses were performed using the computer program SPSS (PASW Statistics 20.0.0; IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA). Partial η squared (ηp 2 ) and observed power were calculated for all significant interactions. Data are presented as mean ± SD.
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What conflicts of interest were reported? Not mentioned.
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Refid 24916558
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What were the sources of funding? JM, PF, CT, LC, MK, MM, JJ, and ES are currently employees of the funding source, MusclePharm Corporation. However, the current research was conducted at the US Sports Academy by authors who at the time were not MusclePharm employees, and the remaining authors have no financial interests concerning the outcome of this investigation.
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