Study Title and Description
Coca-Cola and kangaroos.
Key Questions Addressed
|1||For [population], is caffeine intake above [exposure dose], compared to intakes [exposure dose] or less, associated with adverse effects on acute toxicity*?|
Primary Publication Information
|Title||Coca-Cola and kangaroos.|
|Author||DW Mudge,DW Johnson,|
Secondary Publication Information
There are currently no secondary publications defined for this study.
Extraction Form: Acute Toxicity - Study Design Details
No arms have been defined in this extraction form.
|Question... Follow Up||Answer||Follow-up Answer|
|What outcome is being evaluated in this paper?||Acute|
|What is the objective of the study (as reported by the authors)?||a case report of a 44 year old previously fit and well individual with sudden onset of muscle weakness. Individual admitted consuming 4L coca-cola most days and up to 10L at night|
|Provide a general description of the methods as reported by the authors. Information should be extracted based on relevance to the SR (i.e., caffeine related methods)||caffeine was self reported, this was an emergency visit due to muscle weakness, Thyroid was tested, urine analyzed, blood work done, respiratory function decreasing treated with intubation and low potassium t|
|How many outcome-specific endpoints are evaluated?||6|
|What is the (or one of the) endpoint(s) evaluated? (Each endpoint listed separately)||respiratory function decreased -|
|List additional health endpoints (separately).||ECG|
|List additional health endpoints (separately)||muscle weakness|
|What is the study design?|
|Randomized or Non-Randomized?|
|What were the diagnostics or methods used to measure the outcome?||Both|
|Optional: Name of Method or short description||assessment by doctor (respiratory and muscle); blood work, urinalysis and thyroid tests would be standard ER labs|
|Caffeine (general)||Caffeine (general)|
|What was the reference, comparison, or control group(s)? (e.g. high vs low consumption, number of cups, etc.)||none - this is a case report|
|What were the listed confounders or modifying factors as stated by the authors? (e.g. multi-variable components of models. Copy from methods)||authors did note that this may not have been "acute" as individual claimed to drink between 4-10L for previous 3 years (my comment: what is not clear is if he meant while hunting, or all the time)|
|Provide a general description of results (as reported by the authors).||muscular weakness (graded 2/5); respiratory function deteriorated requiring intubation, blood tests showed hypkalaemia and increased serum creatine kinase, urinalysis showed kaluresis, thyroid function and drug tests were normal, ECG showed T wave flattening and U waves.|
|Did the authors perform a dose-response analysis (or trend/related analysis)?||No|
|What were the authors's observations re: trend analysis?|
|What were the author's conclusions?||that sugar from the cola or caffeine from the cola was responsible for the effects. "Caffeinated and/or hyperosmolar beverages should be considered as a cause of unexplained hypokalemia with osmotic diuresis and kaluresis"|
|What were the sources of funding?||none stated|
|What conflicts of interest were reported?||none reported|
|Does the exposure (dose) need to be standardized to the SR?||Yes|
|Provide calculations/conversions for the exposure based on the decision tree in the guide (for all endpoints/exposure levels of interest).||(caffeine value provided by authors) 97 mg caf/L cola x 4 L = 388 mg 97 mg caf/L cola x 10 L = 970 mg|
|List all the endpoint(s) followed by the dose (mg) which will be used in comparison to Nawrot. Characterize value as LOAEL/NOAEL, etc. if possible.||acute toxicity (muscle weakness/hypokalemia) associated with 388mg-970mg/day caffeine; note they suggested 97mg/L for Coca-cola with ingest of 4-10L.|
|Notes regarding selection/listing of endpoints and exposures/doses to be compared to Nawrot.||This was self reported and no blood work for caffeine was conducted|
|What is the importance of the study with respect to the adverseness of the outcome?||Important|
No baseline characteristics have been defined for this extraction form.
Results & Comparisons
No Results found.
|Arm or Total||Title||Description||Comments|
No quality dimensions were specified.
No quality rating data was found.