Study Title and Description
Hypertension in a young boy: an energy drink effect.
Key Questions Addressed
|1||For [population], is caffeine intake above [exposure dose], compared to intakes [exposure dose] or less, associated with adverse effects on acute toxicity*?|
Primary Publication Information
|Title||Hypertension in a young boy: an energy drink effect.|
|Author||A Usman,A Jawaid,|
Secondary Publication Information
There are currently no secondary publications defined for this study.
Extraction Form: Acute Toxicity - Study Design Details
No arms have been defined in this extraction form.
|Question... Follow Up||Answer||Follow-up Answer|
|What outcome is being evaluated in this paper?||Acute|
|What is the objective of the study (as reported by the authors)?||To provide a case report on a 16 year old boy who presented to a family physician clinic with complaints of palpitations off and on for one week|
|Provide a general description of the methods as reported by the authors. Information should be extracted based on relevance to the SR (i.e., caffeine related methods)||self report of caffeine, medical history taken, pulse and blood pressure taken, blood work and ECG taken|
|How many outcome-specific endpoints are evaluated?||5|
|What is the (or one of the) endpoint(s) evaluated? (Each endpoint listed separately)||medical history -nothing significant noted other than chronic energy drink intake|
|List additional health endpoints (separately).||palpitations reported, ECG normal|
|List additional health endpoints (separately)|
|Notes||on blood work normal (no hypokalemia noted)|
|What is the study design?||Case report|
|Randomized or Non-Randomized?|
|What were the diagnostics or methods used to measure the outcome?||Both|
|Optional: Name of Method or short description|
|Energy drinks||Energy drinks|
|What was the reference, comparison, or control group(s)? (e.g. high vs low consumption, number of cups, etc.)||none - case report|
|What were the listed confounders or modifying factors as stated by the authors? (e.g. multi-variable components of models. Copy from methods)||none mentioned|
|Provide a general description of results (as reported by the authors).||no changes in blood chemistry, pulse 110/min; BP 150/95, no radio femoral delay, no renal bruit, ECG normal.|
|Did the authors perform a dose-response analysis (or trend/related analysis)?||No|
|What were the authors's observations re: trend analysis?|
|What were the author's conclusions?||Hypertension and heart palpitations observed in a 16 year old boy after consuming an average of 3 Sting Energy drinks per day was associated with hypertension and heart palpitations.|
|What were the sources of funding?||none stated by authors|
|What conflicts of interest were reported?||Authors state there are no conflicts|
|Does the exposure (dose) need to be standardized to the SR?||Yes|
|Provide calculations/conversions for the exposure based on the decision tree in the guide (for all endpoints/exposure levels of interest).||3 Energy drinks (500ml size serving, ~16 oz) average per day X 160 mg caffeine/serving = 480 mg/day|
|List all the endpoint(s) followed by the dose (mg) which will be used in comparison to Nawrot. Characterize value as LOAEL/NOAEL, etc. if possible.||palpitations and hypertension (480 mg)|
|Notes regarding selection/listing of endpoints and exposures/doses to be compared to Nawrot.||The Pepsi website didn't list the content for this drink, Wikipedia did so that was used in calculation above. Authors also mention that adolescent claimed to have drunk 80-100 cans over the past two weeks with an average of 3/day so average was used|
|What is the importance of the study with respect to the adverseness of the outcome?||Low|
No baseline characteristics have been defined for this extraction form.
Results & Comparisons
No Results found.
|Arm or Total||Title||Description||Comments|
No quality dimensions were specified.
No quality rating data was found.