Advanced Search

Study Preview



Study Title and Description

High dietary caffeine consumption is associated with a modest increase in headache prevalence: results from the Head-HUNT Study.



Key Questions Addressed
1 For [population], is caffeine intake above [exposure dose], compared to intakes [exposure dose] or less, associated with adverse effects on behavior*?
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |

Primary Publication Information
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
TitleData
Title High dietary caffeine consumption is associated with a modest increase in headache prevalence: results from the Head-HUNT Study.
Author K Hagen,K Thoresen,LJ Stovner,JA Zwart,
Country
Year 2009
Numbers

Secondary Publication Information
There are currently no secondary publications defined for this study.


Extraction Form: Behavior - Design Details - INCLUDED Studies
Arms
No arms have been defined in this extraction form.

Design Details
Question... Follow Up Answer Follow-up Answer
Refid 19308315
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
What outcome is being evaluated in this paper? Behavior
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
What is the objective of the study (as reported by the authors)? The aim of this study was to investigate the association between caffeine consumption and headache type and frequency in the general adult population.
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Provide a general description of the methods as reported by the authors. Information should be extracted based on relevance to the SR (i.e., caffeine related methods) Of the 92,566 invited inhabitants, a total of 51,383 subjects (56%) completed the headache questionnaire [14], whereof 50,483 (55%) answered the question about caffeine consumption. The participants were asked to report the number of cups of brew coffee, other types of coffee (i.e. instant coffee and drip coffee), and tea per day. Total overall caffeine consumption (mg/day) was the sum of caffeine per day due to brew coffee, other types of coffee, tea, and ergotamine-containing medication. Information regarding caffeine consumption due to caffeinated soda, hot chocolate, and other caffeine containing medications (OTC or prescribed) were not available. Subjects who answered ‘‘yes’’ to the question ‘‘Have you suffered from headache during the last 12 months?’’ were classified as headache sufferers. Based on data from the subsequent 12 headache questions, they were classified into two groups of either migraine or non-migrainous headache. The diagnoses were mutually exclusive. A headache which did not fulfill the criteria for migraine was classified as a non-migrainous headache. Based on a question about headache frequency during the last year, headache frequency was divided in three categories; <7, 7–14, and >14 days/month. The participants were categorized into quartiles based on individual values of total caffeine consumption. High caffeine consumption was defined as the top quartile ([540 mg/day), whereas low caffeine consumption was defined at the low quartile (0–240 mg/day).
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
How many outcome-specific endpoints are evaluated? 1
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
What is the (or one of the) endpoint(s) evaluated? (Each endpoint listed separately) Headache
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
List additional health endpoints (separately).
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
List additional health endpoints (separately)
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Notes Study analyzes type and frequency of headaches (migraine or non-migrainous & 1-6 days/month, 7-14 days/month, or >14 days/month)
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Clinical Clinical
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Physiological
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Other
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
What is the study design? Cross-sectional
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Randomized or Non-Randomized?
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
What were the diagnostics or methods used to measure the outcome? Subjective
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Optional: Name of Method or short description
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Caffeine (general) Caffeine (general)
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Coffee
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Chocolate
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Energy drinks
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Gum
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Medicine/Supplement
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Soda
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Tea
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Measured
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Self-report Self-report
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Children
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Adolescents
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Adults Adults
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Pregnant Women
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
What was the reference, comparison, or control group(s)? (e.g. high vs low consumption, number of cups, etc.) low caffeine consumption per day vs high consumption
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
What were the listed confounders or modifying factors as stated by the authors? (e.g. multi-variable components of models.  Copy from methods) In the final analyses we adjusted for age, gender, smoking, and education level as confounders. Other potential confounding factors like physical activity, previous myocardial infarction, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and mean systolic blood pressure were also evaluated, but were excluded from the final analyses because they changed the OR by <5%.
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Provide a general description of results (as reported by the authors). The unadjusted headache prevalence varied with daily caffeine consumption being highest for the group of individuals using [500 mg caffeine daily. In the multivariate analyses, adjusting for age, gender, smoking, and level of education as confounding factors, the prevalence of headache was higher among individuals with the highest caffeine consumption than among individuals with the lowest consumption (OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.07–1.20), evident for both men (OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.06– 1.28) and women (OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.03–1.23) (data not shown). The results were more marked for nonmigrainous headache (OR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.07–1.21) than migraine (OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.01–1.20). No interaction between age and caffeine consumption was found (P = 0.66). Individuals with high caffeine consumption were more likely to have headache <7 days/month than those with low caffeine consumption, and there was a linear trend (P<0.001) of increasing prevalence of headache <7 days/month with increasing caffeine consumption. Non-migrainous headache <7 days/month was 18% more common (OR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.10–1.26) among individuals with high caffeine consumption than among individuals with lowest consumption, evident for both men (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.09–1.34) and women (OR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.06–1.28). In contrast, headache [14 days/month was less likely among individuals with intermediate or high caffeine consumption compared to those with low caffeine consumption.
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Did the authors perform a dose-response analysis (or trend/related analysis)? Yes
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
What were the authors's observations re: trend analysis? A statistically significant (P< 0.001) association was observed between increases in prevalence of total headaches (migraine + non-migrainous) and non-migrainous headache with increased caffeine consumption; increased consumption was not statistically associated with an increase in the prevalence of migraines. A statistically significant increase in the likelihood of having headaches <7 days/month was observed with increased caffeine consumption.
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
What were the author's conclusions? In this large cross-sectional study high caffeine consumption was associated with increased prevalence of infrequent headache, whereas chronic headache surprisingly was less likely among individual with high caffeine consumption.
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
What were the sources of funding? None.
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
What conflicts of interest were reported? None.
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Does the exposure (dose) need to be standardized to the SR? No
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Provide calculations/conversions for the exposure based on the decision tree in the guide (for all endpoints/exposure levels of interest).
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
List all the endpoint(s) followed by the dose (mg) which will be used in comparison to Nawrot.  Characterize value as LOAEL/NOAEL, etc. if possible.  Total Headache NOAEL = 241 - 400 mg Total Headache LOAEL = 540 mg Migrane NOAEL = 241 - 400 mg Migrane LOAEL = 540 mg Non-migranainous headache LOAEL = 241 - 400 mg Headache frequency (<7 days/month) NOAEL = 241 - 400 mg Headache frequency (<7 days/month) LOAEL = 540 mg Headache frequency (7-14 days/month) NOAEL = 241 - 400 mg Headache frequency (7-14 days/month) LOAEL = 540 mg Headache frequency (>14 days/month) NOAEL = 540 mg
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Notes regarding selection/listing of endpoints and exposures/doses to be compared to Nawrot. Total headache includes migrane and non-migrainous headaches.
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
What is the importance of the study with respect to the adverseness of the outcome? Important
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |


Baseline Characteristics
No baseline characteristics have been defined for this extraction form.



Results & Comparisons

No Results found.
Adverse Events
Arm or Total Title Description Comments

Quality Dimensions
No quality dimensions were specified.

Quality Rating
No quality rating data was found.