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Study Title and Description

Semen analysis in fertile patients undergoing vasectomy: reference values and variations according to age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and caffeine intake.



Key Questions Addressed
1 For [population], is caffeine intake above [exposure dose], compared to intakes [exposure dose] or less, associated with adverse effects on reproductive and developmental outcomes?
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Primary Publication Information
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TitleData
Title Semen analysis in fertile patients undergoing vasectomy: reference values and variations according to age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and caffeine intake.
Author BP Sobreiro,AM Lucon,FF Pasqualotto,J Hallak,KS Athayde,S Arap,
Country
Year 2005
Numbers

Secondary Publication Information
There are currently no secondary publications defined for this study.


Extraction Form: Reproductive Toxicity - Design Details
Arms
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Design Details
Question... Follow Up Answer Follow-up Answer
Refid 16389413
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What outcome is being evaluated in this paper? Reproductive and Development
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What is the objective of the study (as reported by the authors)? The objective was to establish reference values for semen analysis and to verify the effect that age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and coffee consumption have on fertile individuals’ semen characteristics
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Provide a general description of the methods as reported by the authors. Information should be extracted based on relevance to the SR (i.e., caffeine related methods) Prospective study in Sao Paulo, Brazil; 500 fertile volunteers for sterilization by vasectomy (aged 35.04 +/1 6.1 years, range 24-63). Single sperm sample collected in morning; following liquefaction, semen color, volume, viscosity, and pH were assessed. Sperm count determined by phase microscopy, sperm motility via two counts of 100 spermatozoa, and sperm morphology determined by smear technique and classified according to WHO descriptions. To study the influence of the different variables on the semen parameters, the patients were divided into groups. These included age, length of sexual abstinence, month of the year, smoking habit, and coffee consumption. For coffee consumption, the groups were: no coffee consumption (n = 151); 1-3 cups of coffee per day (n = 249); 4-6 cups/day (n = 48); and > 6 cups/day (n = 52). ANOVA and Bonferroni’s post-hoc test were used for the comparisons between the groups; the level of statistical significance established was 5%.
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How many outcome-specific endpoints are evaluated? 4
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What is the (or one of the) endpoint(s) evaluated? (Each endpoint listed separately) semen volume
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List additional health endpoints (separately).
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List additional health endpoints (separately)
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Notes
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Clinical
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Physiological Physiological
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Other
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What is the study design? Cohort
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Randomized or Non-Randomized?
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What were the diagnostics or methods used to measure the outcome? Objective
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Optional: Name of Method or short description
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Caffeine (general)
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Coffee Coffee
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Chocolate
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Energy drinks
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Gum
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Medicine/Supplement
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Soda
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Tea
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Measured
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Self-report Self-report
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Children
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Adolescents
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Adults Adults
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Pregnant Women
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What was the reference, comparison, or control group(s)? (e.g. high vs low consumption, number of cups, etc.) For coffee consumption, the groups were: no coffee consumption (n = 151); 1-3 cups of coffee per day (n = 249); 4-6 cups/day (n = 48); and > 6 cups/day (n = 52).
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What were the listed confounders or modifying factors as stated by the authors? (e.g. multi-variable components of models.  Copy from methods) NA
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Provide a general description of results (as reported by the authors). Authors report that "as coffee consumption increased, so did sperm motility. Among patients who were not in the habit of drinking coffee, progressive motility averaged 57.1%, whereas for the patients who consumed more than six cups of coffee per day, it averaged 62.4% (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in semen volume, sperm concentration or sperm morphology in relation to coffee consumption (p < 0.05)."
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Did the authors perform a dose-response analysis (or trend/related analysis)? No
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What were the authors's observations re: trend analysis?
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What were the author's conclusions? In our sample, after univariate statistical analysis, coffee consumption remained associated with increased sperm motility. Our sample had a very low percentage of normal sperm morphology, when judged by the WHO standards. Semen volume decreased with age but increased according to the length of sexual abstinence. Sperm concentration was lower in the summer. Sperm motility increased with coffee consumption, but decreased with age, sexual abstinence of greater than or equal to five days, and in the summer months. The normal sperm morphology percentage was lower in summer. Smoking had no influence on the parameters studied.
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What were the sources of funding? Sources of funding: None
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What conflicts of interest were reported? Conflict of interest: None
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Does the exposure (dose) need to be standardized to the SR? Yes
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Provide calculations/conversions for the exposure based on the decision tree in the guide (for all endpoints/exposure levels of interest). For coffee consumption, the groups were: no coffee consumption (n = 151); 1-3 cups of coffee per day (n = 249); 4-6 cups/day (n = 48); and > 6 cups/day (n = 52). 1-3 cups = 95-285 mg/day > 6 cups = >570 mg/day
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List all the endpoint(s) followed by the dose (mg) which will be used in comparison to Nawrot.  Characterize value as LOAEL/NOAEL, etc. if possible.  NOEL = >570 mg/day for semen volume NOEL = >570 mg/day for sperm concentration NOEL = >570 mg/day for sperm morphology LOEL = 95-285 mg/day for sperm progressive motility
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Notes regarding selection/listing of endpoints and exposures/doses to be compared to Nawrot.
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What is the importance of the study with respect to the adverseness of the outcome? Important
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