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Project: Sugars and Health - Evidence Map

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Project Summary

Title and Description

Title Sugars and Health - Evidence Map
Description This evidence map on sugars and health outcomes was developed using an iterative process. Evidence Map data are being used to support a stakeholders ‘ decision-making on refining research questions and topic prioritization. The goal of this Future Research Needs project is to characterize the available evidence regarding the intake of sugars and health outcomes and identify priority areas where additional research needs remain.
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Contributor(s) Mei Chung, PhD, MPH (Principal Investigator). Team Members: Samantha Berger, Carrie Brown, Jiantao Ma, Joachim Sackey, Deena Wang.
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Methodology Abstract submitted to Experimental Biology 2014: Sugars and health: Applying evidence mapping techniques to assess the evidence. Objective: Evidence mapping (EM) is a novel, systematic method for describing the volume and characteristics of research in a broad field. We applied EM to evaluate the empirical evidence of the state of science on the relationships between sugars and cardiometabolic health-related outcomes. Methods: A pre-defined, systematic study selection process was applied to a broad Medline search (through April 2013) of the existing literature on sugars. Studies reporting cardiometabolic risk factors and/or related clinical outcomes were selected for this study. Data from the studies were extracted and deposited to a data repository. Descriptive analyses were performed. Results: Our EM included 207 studies (196 intervention and 11 cohort studies). Of the intervention studies, the most common sugar interventions were sucrose (40%) and fructose (31%), and the top two controls were glucose (14%) and starch (13%). The most studied outcomes were glycemic profiles (27%), plasma lipids (11%), and anthropometrics (7%). Studies were generally short in duration (median 26 days, ranging from <1 to 730 days). 89% were in adults and 6% were in children. The 11 cohort studies investigated 3 different sugar exposures and 9 different hard clinical outcomes. Conclusions: An extensive but heterogeneous body of evidence exists in this broad field of research. EM is a useful method for identifying "hot" research areas and research gaps. Evidence-based methods are effective to direct future research.
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DOI 10.7301/Z0X63JT1
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Funding Source The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) North American Branch.
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Key Questions

1 What is the effect of sugars on health outcomes in intervention studies?
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2 What is the effect of sugar on health outcomes in cohort studies?
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Associated Extraction Forms

Title Created by Key Questions Addressed Form Notes
Sugar Evidence Map Intervention Studies Samantha Berger 1
Sugar Evidence Map Cohort Studies Samantha Berger 2

Associated Studies (each link opens a new tab)

Title Author Year
Effect of eucaloric high- and low-sucrose diets with identical macronutrient profile on insulin resistance and vascular risk: a randomized controlled trial. Black RN., Spence M., McMahon RO., Cuskelly GJ., Ennis CN., McCance DR., Young IS., Bell PM., Hunter SJ. 2006
Low to moderate sugar-sweetened beverage consumption impairs glucose and lipid metabolism and promotes inflammation in healthy young men: a randomized controlled trial. Aeberli I., Gerber PA., Hochuli M., Kohler S., Haile SR., Gouni-Berthold I., Berthold HK., Spinas GA., Berneis K. 2011
Fructose overconsumption causes dyslipidemia and ectopic lipid deposition in healthy subjects with and without a family history of type 2 diabetes. Lê KA., Ith M., Kreis R., Faeh D., Bortolotti M., Tran C., Boesch C., Tappy L. 2009
A 4-wk high-fructose diet alters lipid metabolism without affecting insulin sensitivity or ectopic lipids in healthy humans. Lê KA., Faeh D., Stettler R., Ith M., Kreis R., Vermathen P., Boesch C., Ravussin E., Tappy L. 2006
Effects of a short-term overfeeding with fructose or glucose in healthy young males. Ngo Sock ET., Lê KA., Ith M., Kreis R., Boesch C., Tappy L. 2010
Excessive fructose intake induces the features of metabolic syndrome in healthy adult men: role of uric acid in the hypertensive response. Perez-Pozo SE., Schold J., Nakagawa T., Sánchez-Lozada LG., Johnson RJ., Lillo JL. 2010
Diet-induced changes in serum transaminase and triglyceride levels in healthy adult men. Role of sucrose and excess calories. Porikos KP., Van Itallie TB. 1983
Effects of 4-week very-high-fructose/glucose diets on insulin sensitivity, visceral fat and intrahepatic lipids: an exploratory trial. Silbernagel G., Machann J., Unmuth S., Schick F., Stefan N., Häring HU., Fritsche A. 2011
Consuming fructose-sweetened, not glucose-sweetened, beverages increases visceral adiposity and lipids and decreases insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese humans. Stanhope KL., Schwarz JM., Keim NL., Griffen SC., Bremer AA., Graham JL., Hatcher B., Cox CL., Dyachenko A., Zhang W., McGahan JP., Seibert A., Krauss RM., Chiu S., Schaefer EJ., Ai M., Otokozawa S., Nakajima K., Nakano T., Beysen C., Hellerstein MK., Berglund L., Havel PJ. 2009
Fructose and oxidized low-density lipoprotein in pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a pilot study. Vos MB., Weber MB., Welsh J., Khatoon F., Jones DP., Whitington PF., McClain CJ. 2009
Effects of natural honey consumption in diabetic patients: an 8-week randomized clinical trial. Bahrami M., Ataie-Jafari A., Hosseini S., Foruzanfar MH., Rahmani M., Pajouhi M. 2009
Glycemic index and dietary fiber and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Hodge AM., English DR., O&#x27;Dea K., Giles GG. 2004
Interaction of dietary sucrose and fiber on serum lipids in healthy young men fed high carbohydrate diets. Albrink MJ., Ullrich IH. 1986
Children with NAFLD are more sensitive to the adverse metabolic effects of fructose beverages than children without NAFLD. Jin R., Le NA., Liu S., Farkas Epperson M., Ziegler TR., Welsh JA., Jones DP., McClain CJ., Vos MB. 2012
Blood lipid distribution of hyperinsulinemic men consuming three levels of fructose. Hallfrisch J., Reiser S., Prather ES. 1983
Moderate increase in dietary sucrose does not influence fasting or postprandial serum lipids regardless of the presence of apolipoprotein E2 allele in healthy subjects. Erkkilä AT., Schwab US., Agren JJ., Hallikainen M., Gylling H., Uusitupa MI. 2007
Sucrose in a lipid-rich meal amplifies the postprandial excursion of serum and lipoprotein triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations by decreasing triglyceride clearance. Grant KI., Marais MP., Dhansay MA. 1994
Triglyceride integrated concentrations: effect of variation of source and amount of dietary carbohydrate. Hayford JT., Danney MM., Wiebe D., Roberts S., Thompson RG. 1979
Ad libitum intake of low-fat diets rich in either starchy foods or sucrose: effects on blood lipids, factor VII coagulant activity, and fibrinogen. Marckmann P., Raben A., Astrup A. 2000
Mechanisms for the acute effect of fructose on postprandial lipemia. Chong MF., Fielding BA., Frayn KN. 2007
Is carbohydrate intake in the first years of life related to future risk of NCDs? Niinikoski H., Ruottinen S. 2012
Metabolic effects of dietary fructose in diabetic subjects. Bantle JP., Swanson JE., Thomas W., Laine DC. 1992
Effectiveness of dietary advice given by community dietitians to men with elevated blood cholesterol in a clinical setting: a pilot study. Drummond S., Kirk T., Jackson J., Hendry J., Panton S., Gray F. 2003
Isocaloric exchange of dietary starch and sucrose in humans. I. Effects on levels of fasting blood lipids. Reiser S., Hallfrisch J., Michaelis OE., Lazar FL., Martin RE., Prather ES. 1979
Metabolic effects of honey (alone or combined with other foods) in type II diabetics. Katsilambros NL., Philippides P., Touliatou A., Georgakopoulos K., Kofotzouli L., Frangaki D., Siskoudis P., Marangos M., Sfikakis P. -- Not Found --
Effect of an empowerment-based nutrition promotion program on food consumption and serum lipid levels in hyperlipidemic Thai elderly. Boonyasopun U., Aree P., Avant KC. 2008
Natural honey and cardiovascular risk factors; effects on blood glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerole, CRP, and body weight compared with sucrose. Yaghoobi N., Al-Waili N., Ghayour-Mobarhan M., Parizadeh SM., Abasalti Z., Yaghoobi Z., Yaghoobi F., Esmaeili H., Kazemi-Bajestani SM., Aghasizadeh R., Saloom KY., Ferns GA. 2008
Effects of isomalt consumption on gastrointestinal and metabolic parameters in healthy volunteers. Gostner A., Schäffer V., Theis S., Menzel T., Lührs H., Melcher R., Schauber J., Kudlich T., Dusel G., Dorbath D., Kozianowski G., Scheppach W. 2005
Effects of supplementation with essential amino acids on intrahepatic lipid concentrations during fructose overfeeding in humans. Theytaz F., Noguchi Y., Egli L., Campos V., Buehler T., Hodson L., Patterson BW., Nishikata N., Kreis R., Mittendorfer B., Fielding B., Boesch C., Tappy L. 2012
Twenty-four-hour endocrine and metabolic profiles following consumption of high-fructose corn syrup-, sucrose-, fructose-, and glucose-sweetened beverages with meals. Stanhope KL., Griffen SC., Bair BR., Swarbrick MM., Keim NL., Havel PJ. 2008
The effect of various vegetable supplements on serum cholesterol. Fraser GE., Jacobs DR., Anderson JT., Foster N., Palta M., Blackburn H. 1981
Men at increased risk of coronary heart disease are not different from age- and weight-matched healthy controls in their postprandial triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acid, or incretin responses to sucrose. Brynes AE., Edwards CM., Ghatei MA., Bloom SR., Frost GS. 2002
Effects on serum lipids of reducing dietary sucrose or starch for 22 weeks in normal men. Mann JI., Truswell AS., Manning EB. 1972
Moderate diet control in children: the effects on metabolic indicators that predict obesity-related degenerative diseases. Kahle EB., Walker RB., Eisenman PA., Behall KM., Hallfrisch J., Reiser S. 1982
The influence of frequency of sucrose intake on serum lipid, protein and carbohydrate levels. MacDonald I., Coles BL., Brice J., Jourdan MH. 1970
Serum insulin and glucose in hyperinsulinemic subjects fed three different levels of sucrose. Reiser S., Bohn E., Hallfrisch J., Michaelis OE., Keeney M., Prather ES. 1981
Moderate intake of sucrose does not impair metabolic control in pump-treated diabetic out-patients. Chantelau EA., Gösseringer G., Sonnenberg GE., Berger M. 1985
Metabolic effects of adding sucrose and aspartame to the diet of subjects with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Colagiuri S., Miller JJ., Edwards RA. 1989
Comparative study of isomalt and sucrose by means of continuous indirect calorimetry. Thiébaud D., Jacot E., Schmitz H., Spengler M., Felber JP. 1984
Sucrose in the diet of diabetic patients--just another carbohydrate? Peterson DB., Lambert J., Gerring S., Darling P., Carter RD., Jelfs R., Mann JI. 1986
The effects of drinks made from simple sugars on blood pressure in healthy older people. Visvanathan R., Chen R., Garcia M., Horowitz M., Chapman I. 2005
Lack of detectable deleterious effects on metabolic control of daily fructose ingestion for 2 mo in NIDDM patients. Grigoresco C., Rizkalla SW., Halfon P., Bornet F., Fontvieille AM., Bros M., Dauchy F., Tchobroutsky G., Slama G. -- Not Found --
Effect of sucrose-containing snacks on blood glucose control. Wise JE., Keim KS., Huisinga JL., Willmann PA. 1989
Dietary fructose reduces circulating insulin and leptin, attenuates postprandial suppression of ghrelin, and increases triglycerides in women. Teff KL., Elliott SS., Tschöp M., Kieffer TJ., Rader D., Heiman M., Townsend RR., Keim NL., D&#x27;Alessio D., Havel PJ. 2004
Similar glycemic responses to high versus moderate sucrose-containing foods in test meals for adolescents with type 1 diabetes and fasting euglycemia. Rickard KA., Cleveland JL., Loghmani ES., Fineberg NS., Freidenberg GR. 2001
The effectiveness of glucose, sucrose, and fructose in treating hypoglycemia in children with type 1 diabetes. Husband AC., Crawford S., McCoy LA., Pacaud D. 2010
Sublingual sugar administration as an alternative to intravenous dextrose administration to correct hypoglycemia among children in the tropics. Barennes H., Valea I., Nagot N., Van de Perre P., Pussard E. 2005
Blood insulin, glucose, fructose and gastric inhibitory polypeptide levels in carbohydrate-sensitive and normal men given a sucrose or invert sugar tolerance test. Ellwood KC., Michaelis OE., Hallfrisch JG., O&#x27;Dorisio TM., Cataland S. 1983
Effect of glucose, sucrose and fructose on plasma glucose and insulin responses in normal humans: comparison with white bread. Lee BM., Wolever TM. 1998
Long-term effects of eating sucrose on metabolic control of type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic outpatients. Santacroce G., Forlani G., Giangiulio S., Galuppi V., Pagani M., Vannini P. -- Not Found --
Day-long glucose, insulin, and fructose responses of hyperinsulinemic and nonhyperinsulinemic men adapted to diets containing either fructose or high-amylose cornstarch. Reiser S., Powell AS., Scholfield DJ., Panda P., Fields M., Canary JJ. 1989
Deleterious metabolic effects of high-carbohydrate, sucrose-containing diets in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Coulston AM., Hollenbeck CB., Swislocki AL., Chen YD., Reaven GM. 1987
Diurnal metabolic profiles after 14 d of an ad libitum high-starch, high-sucrose, or high-fat diet in normal-weight never-obese and postobese women. Raben A., Holst JJ., Madsen J., Astrup A. 2001
Glycemic response to sucrose-containing mixed meals in diets of children of with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Loghmani E., Rickard K., Washburne L., Vandagriff J., Fineberg N., Golden M. 1991
Blood lipids, lipoproteins, apoproteins, and uric acid in men fed diets containing fructose or high-amylose cornstarch. Reiser S., Powell AS., Scholfield DJ., Panda P., Ellwood KC., Canary JJ. 1989
Prevalence of daily hyperglycemia in obese type 2 diabetic men compared with that in lean and obese normoglycemic men: effect of consumption of a sucrose-containing beverage. Manders RJ., Pennings B., Beckers CP., Aipassa TI., van Loon LJ. 2009
Endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming fructose- and glucose-sweetened beverages with meals in obese men and women: influence of insulin resistance on plasma triglyceride responses. Teff KL., Grudziak J., Townsend RR., Dunn TN., Grant RW., Adams SH., Keim NL., Cummings BP., Stanhope KL., Havel PJ. 2009
Sugar alters the level of serum insulin and plasma glucose and the serum cortisol:DHEAS ratio in female migraine sufferers. Kokavec A., Crebbin SJ. 2010
Effects of dietary fructose on plasma lipids in healthy subjects. Bantle JP., Raatz SK., Thomas W., Georgopoulos A. 2000
Effects of high-fructose corn syrup and sucrose consumption on circulating glucose, insulin, leptin, and ghrelin and on appetite in normal-weight women. Melanson KJ., Zukley L., Lowndes J., Nguyen V., Angelopoulos TJ., Rippe JM. 2007
A low fructose diet in the treatment of pediatric obesity: a pilot study. Maier IB., Stricker L., Ozel Y., Wagnerberger S., Bischoff SC., Bergheim I. 2011
Fructose prefeeding reduces the glycemic response to a high-glycemic index, starchy food in humans. Heacock PM., Hertzler SR., Wolf BW. 2002
Reduced glycaemic and insulinaemic responses following isomaltulose ingestion: implications for postprandial substrate use. van Can JG., Ijzerman TH., van Loon LJ., Brouns F., Blaak EE. 2009
Increased sucrose intake is not associated with a change in glucose or insulin sensitivity in people with type 2 diabetes. Brynes AE., Frost GS. 2007
Effects of basswood honey, honey-comparable glucose-fructose solution, and oral glucose tolerance test solution on serum insulin, glucose, and C-peptide concentrations in healthy subjects. Münstedt K., Sheybani B., Hauenschild A., Brüggmann D., Bretzel RG., Winter D. 2008
Effects of dietary sucrose intake on glycaemic control in Nigerians with type 2 diabetes. Okoro EO., Funsho SO., Oyedokun OA., Oyejola BA. 2007
Weight loss in overweight subjects following low-sucrose or sucrose-containing diets. West JA., de Looy AE. 2001
Safety of new algorithms for premeal insulin boluses in high glycaemic index meals in persons with type 1 diabetes mellitus using insulin pumps. Lippaiova N., Pallayova M., Kuzmina G., Peterson K., Fajkosova L., Luza J. 2008
Consumption of rapeseed honey leads to higher serum fructose levels compared with analogue glucose/fructose solutions. Münstedt K., Böhme M., Hauenschild A., Hrgovic I. 2011
Consumption of the slow-digesting waxy maize starch leads to blunted plasma glucose and insulin response but does not influence energy expenditure or appetite in humans. Sands AL., Leidy HJ., Hamaker BR., Maguire P., Campbell WW. 2009
Long-term dietary compensation for added sugar: effects of supplementary sucrose drinks over a 4-week period. Reid M., Hammersley R., Hill AJ., Skidmore P. 2007
Delayed effects of coffee, tea and sucrose on postprandial glycemia in lean, young, healthy adults. Louie JC., Atkinson F., Petocz P., Brand-Miller JC. 2008
Influence of mulberry leaf extract on the blood glucose and breath hydrogen response to ingestion of 75 g sucrose by type 2 diabetic and control subjects. Mudra M., Ercan-Fang N., Zhong L., Furne J., Levitt M. 2007
Consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages for 10 weeks increases postprandial triacylglycerol and apolipoprotein-B concentrations in overweight and obese women. Swarbrick MM., Stanhope KL., Elliott SS., Graham JL., Krauss RM., Christiansen MP., Griffen SC., Keim NL., Havel PJ. 2008
Metabolic responses to prolonged consumption of glucose- and fructose-sweetened beverages are not associated with postprandial or 24-h glucose and insulin excursions. Stanhope KL., Griffen SC., Bremer AA., Vink RG., Schaefer EJ., Nakajima K., Schwarz JM., Beysen C., Berglund L., Keim NL., Havel PJ. 2011
The effects of four hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup on weight loss and related parameters. Lowndes J., Kawiecki D., Pardo S., Nguyen V., Melanson KJ., Yu Z., Rippe JM. 2012
The effect of two energy-restricted diets, a low-fructose diet versus a moderate natural fructose diet, on weight loss and metabolic syndrome parameters: a randomized controlled trial. Madero M., Arriaga JC., Jalal D., Rivard C., McFann K., Pérez-Méndez O., Vázquez A., Ruiz A., Lanaspa MA., Jimenez CR., Johnson RJ., Lozada LG. 2011
Long-term effects of dietary fructose on carbohydrate metabolism in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Thorburn AW., Crapo PA., Griver K., Wallace P., Henry RR. 1990
Comparative effects of several simple carbohydrates on erythrocyte insulin receptors in obese subjects. Rizkalla SW., Baigts F., Fumeron F., Rabillon B., Bayn P., Ktorza A., Spielmann D., Apfelbaum M. 1986
Metabolic and behavioral effects of a high-sucrose diet during weight loss. Surwit RS., Feinglos MN., McCaskill CC., Clay SL., Babyak MA., Brownlow BS., Plaisted CS., Lin PH. 1997
Gastric inhibitory polypeptide, dietary-induced thermogenesis, and obesity. Bahendeka SK., Moore RE., Tomkin GH., Buchanan KD. 1987
Acute effects on insulin sensitivity and diurnal metabolic profiles of a high-sucrose compared with a high-starch diet. Daly ME., Vale C., Walker M., Littlefield A., Alberti KG., Mathers JC. 1998
Metabolic effects of dietary sucrose and fructose in type II diabetic subjects. Malerbi DA., Paiva ES., Duarte AL., Wajchenberg BL. 1996
Metabolic effects of dietary fructose and sucrose in types I and II diabetic subjects. Bantle JP., Laine DC., Thomas JW. 1986
Fructose ingestion acutely elevates blood pressure in healthy young humans. Brown CM., Dulloo AG., Yepuri G., Montani JP. 2008
Comparing advice to decrease both dietary fat and sucrose, or dietary fat only, on weight loss, weight maintenance and perceived quality of life. White C., Drummond S., De Looy A. 2010
Non-pharmacological treatment of hypertension in primary health care: a comparative clinical trial of two education strategies in health and nutrition. Ribeiro AG., Ribeiro SM., Dias CM., Ribeiro AQ., Castro FA., Suárez-Varela MM., Cotta RM. 2011
Family dietary coaching to improve nutritional intakes and body weight control: a randomized controlled trial. Paineau DL., Beaufils F., Boulier A., Cassuto DA., Chwalow J., Combris P., Couet C., Jouret B., Lafay L., Laville M., Mahe S., Ricour C., Romon M., Simon C., Tauber M., Valensi P., Chapalain V., Zourabichvili O., Bornet F. 2008
Reduction in risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus in response to a low-sugar, high-fiber dietary intervention in overweight Latino adolescents. Ventura E., Davis J., Byrd-Williams C., Alexander K., McClain A., Lane CJ., Spruijt-Metz D., Weigensberg M., Goran M. 2009
Randomized controlled trial to improve adiposity, inflammation, and insulin resistance in obese African-American and Latino youth. Hasson RE., Adam TC., Davis JN., Kelly LA., Ventura EE., Byrd-Williams CE., Toledo-Corral CM., Roberts CK., Lane CJ., Azen SP., Chou CP., Spruijt-Metz D., Weigensberg MJ., Berhane K., Goran MI. 2012
Effects of dietary changes on cellular insulin binding and in vivo insulin sensitivity. Beck-Nielsen H., Pedersen O., Sørensen NS. 1980
Effects of sucrose drinks on macronutrient intake, body weight, and mood state in overweight women over 4 weeks. Reid M., Hammersley R., Duffy M. 2010
Effects of dietary fructose on plasma glucose and hormone responses in normal and hyperinsulinemic men. Hallfrisch J., Ellwood KC., Michaelis OE., Reiser S., O&#x27;Dorisio TM., Prather ES. 1983
Graded sucrose/carbohydrate diets in overtly hypertriglyceridemic diabetic patients. Jellish WS., Emanuele MA., Abraira C. 1984
Turku sugar studies XI. Effects of sucrose, fructose and xylitol diets on glucose, lipid and urate metabolism. Huttunen JK., Mäkinen KK., Scheinin A. 1976
Effect of carbohydrate ingestion on adipose tissue lipolysis during long-lasting exercise in trained men. De Glisezinski I., Harant I., Crampes F., Trudeau F., Felez A., Cottet-Emard JM., Garrigues M., Riviere D. 1998
Inhibition of glycemic and hormonal responses after repetitive sucrose and starch loads by different doses of the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor miglitol (BAY m 1099) in man. Lembcke B., Fölsch UR., Gatzemeier W., Ebert R., Siegel E., Creutzfeldt W. 1991
The role of gastric inhibitory polypeptide in the augmented insulin response to sucrose. Falko JM., Reynolds JC., O&#x27;Dorisio TM., Bossetti B., Cataland S. -- Not Found --
The metabolic response to various doses of fructose in type II diabetic subjects. Nuttall FQ., Gannon MC., Burmeister LA., Lane JT., Pyzdrowski KL. 1992
Comparative effects of fructose, aspartame, glucose, and water preloads on calorie and macronutrient intake. Rodin J. 1990
Thermogenesis in men and women induced by fructose vs glucose added to a meal. Schwarz JM., Schutz Y., Froidevaux F., Acheson KJ., Jeanprêtre N., Schneider H., Felber JP., Jéquier E. 1989
Effect of solid and liquid carbohydrates upon postprandial pancreatic endocrine function. Schusdziarra V., Dangel G., Klier M., Henrichs I., Pfeiffer EF. 1981
The effects of sucrose meal on insulin requirement in IDDM and its modulation by acarbose. Lecavalier L., Hamet P., Chiasson JL. 1986
Replacement of dietary fat by sucrose or starch: effects on 14 d ad libitum energy intake, energy expenditure and body weight in formerly obese and never-obese subjects. Raben A., Macdonald I., Astrup A. 1997
Hyperglycemic effect of sucrose ingestion in IDDM patients controlled by artificial pancreas. Forlani G., Galuppi V., Santacroce G., Braione AF., Giangiulio S., Ciavarella A., Vannini P. 1989
Metabolic effects of fructose supplementation in diabetic individuals. Anderson JW., Story LJ., Zettwoch NC., Gustafson NJ., Jefferson BS. 1989
Reassessing the effects of simple carbohydrates on the serum triglyceride responses to fat meals. Cohen JC., Schall R. 1988
The effect of dietary sucrose on blood lipids, serum insulin, platelet adhesiveness and body weight in human volunteers. Szanto S., Yudkin J. 1969
Sucrose or honey at breakfast have no additional acute hyperglycaemic effect over an isoglucidic amount of bread in type 2 diabetic patients. Bornet F., Haardt MJ., Costagliola D., Blayo A., Slama G. 1985
Augmented gastric inhibitory polypeptide and insulin responses to a meal after an increase in carbohydrate (sucrose) intake. Mazzaferri EL., Starich GH., St Jeor ST. 1984
Urinary chromium excretion and insulinogenic properties of carbohydrates. Anderson RA., Bryden NA., Polansky MM., Reiser S. 1990
Isocaloric exchange of dietary starch and sucrose in humans. II. Effect on fasting blood insulin, glucose, and glucagon and on insulin and glucose response to a sucrose load. Reiser S., Handler HB., Gardner LB., Hallfrisch JG., Michaelis OE., Prather ES. 1979
The effects of carbohydrate-enriched meals on glucose turnover and metabolic clearance rates of glucose in type 2 diabetic patients. Osei K., Falko JM., Fields PG., Bossetti B., O&#x27;Dorisio TM. 1986
Effect of variations in oral fat and carbohydrate load on postprandial lipemia. Jeppesen J., Chen YD., Zhou MY., Wang T., Reaven GM. 1995
Effects of oral fructose in normal, diabetic, and impaired glucose tolerance subjects. Crapo PA., Kolterman OG., Olefsky JM. -- Not Found --
A crossover trial of high and low sucrose-carbohydrate diets in type II diabetics with hypertriglyceridemia. Emanuele MA., Abraira C., Jellish WS., DeBartolo M. 1986
The glycaemic effect of simple sugars in mid-morning and afternoon snacks in childhood diabetes. Primavesi R., Drakeford J., Savage DC. 1990
Plasma glucose responses to glucose, sucrose, and honey in patients with diabetes mellitus: an analysis of glycaemic and peak incremental indices. Samanta A., Burden AC., Jones GR. 1985
Effects of fructose feeding on blood parameters and blood pressure in impaired glucose-tolerant subjects. Koh ET., Ard NF., Mendoza F. 1988
Effect of fructose overfeeding and fish oil administration on hepatic de novo lipogenesis and insulin sensitivity in healthy men. Faeh D., Minehira K., Schwarz JM., Periasamy R., Periasami R., Park S., Seongsu P., Tappy L. 2005
Markedly blunted metabolic effects of fructose in healthy young female subjects compared with male subjects. Couchepin C., Lê KA., Bortolotti M., da Encarnaçao JA., Oboni JB., Tran C., Schneiter P., Tappy L. 2008
Changes in blood glucose and insulin after an oral palatinose administration in normal subjects. Kawai K., Okuda Y., Yamashita K. 1985
Influence of fiber, xylitol and fructose in enteral formulas on glucose and lipid metabolism in normal subjects. Otto C., Sönnichsen AC., Ritter MM., Richter WO., Schwandt P. 1993
Metabolic effects of dietary sucrose in type II diabetic subjects. Bantle JP., Swanson JE., Thomas W., Laine DC. 1993
Effects of daily consumption of honey solution on hematological indices and blood levels of minerals and enzymes in normal individuals. Al-Waili NS. 2003
Consumption of fructose and high fructose corn syrup increase postprandial triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and apolipoprotein-B in young men and women. Stanhope KL., Bremer AA., Medici V., Nakajima K., Ito Y., Nakano T., Chen G., Fong TH., Lee V., Menorca RI., Keim NL., Havel PJ. 2011
The effects of physiologic amounts of simple sugars on lipoprotein, glucose, and insulin levels in normal subjects. Bossetti BM., Kocher LM., Moranz JF., Falko JM. -- Not Found --
Effects of dietary macronutrient content on glucose metabolism in children. Sunehag AL., Toffolo G., Treuth MS., Butte NF., Cobelli C., Bier DM., Haymond MW. 2002
Metabolic effects of fructose and glucose: implications for food intake. Rodin J., Reed D., Jamner L. 1988
Sweetener augmentation of serum triacylglycerol during a fat challenge test in humans. Singleton MJ., Heiser C., Jamesen K., Mattes RD. 1999
Catalytic amounts of fructose may improve glucose tolerance in subjects with uncontrolled non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Vaisman N., Niv E., Izkhakov Y. 2006
Metabolic effects of fructose as a natural sweetener in the physiologic meals of ambulatory obese patients with type II diabetes. Osei K., Falko J., Bossetti BM., Holland GC. 1987
Lipid metabolism in non-insulin-dependent diabetes: effects of long-term treatment with fructose-supplemented mixed meals. Thorburn AW., Crapo PA., Beltz WF., Wallace P., Witztum JL., Henry RR. 1989
Acute effect of fructose on postprandial lipaemia in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Abraha A., Humphreys SM., Clark ML., Matthews DR., Frayn KN. 1998
Metabolic consequence of two-week fructose feeding in diabetic subjects. Crapo PA., Kolterman OG., Henry RR. -- Not Found --
Low-fructose diet lowers blood pressure and inflammation in patients with chronic kidney disease. Brymora A., Flisiński M., Johnson RJ., Goszka G., Stefańska A., Manitius J. 2012
The effect of kind of carbohydrate in the diet and use of oral contraceptives on metabolism of young women. III. Serum glucose, insulin, and glucagon. Behall KM., Moser PB., Kelsay JL., Prather ES. 1980
Glycemic index and postprandial blood glucose response to Japanese strawberry jam in normal adults. Kurotobi T., Fukuhara K., Inage H., Kimura S. 2010
Metabolic effects of dietary fructose in healthy subjects. Swanson JE., Laine DC., Thomas W., Bantle JP. 1992
Effects of high-fructose corn syrup and sucrose on the pharmacokinetics of fructose and acute metabolic and hemodynamic responses in healthy subjects. Le MT., Frye RF., Rivard CJ., Cheng J., McFann KK., Segal MS., Johnson RJ., Johnson JA. 2012
Carbohydrate tolerance and serum lipid responses to type of dietary carbohydrate and oral contraceptive use in young women. Moser PB., Behall KM., Kelsay JL., Prather ES. 1986
Effects of conventional sucrose-based, fructose-based and isomalt-based chocolates on postprandial metabolism in non-insulin-dependent diabetics. Gee JM., Cooke D., Gorick S., Wortley GM., Greenwood RH., Zumbe A., Johnson IT. 1991
Postprandial triglyceride and retinyl ester responses to oral fat: effects of fructose. Jeppesen J., Chen YI., Zhou MY., Schaaf P., Coulston A., Reaven GM. 1995
Differential effects of honey, sucrose, and fructose on blood sugar levels. Shambaugh P., Worthington V., Herbert JH. -- Not Found --
Comparison of the glycaemic effect of fructose, sucrose and starch-containing mid-morning snacks in insulin-dependent diabetics. Steel JM., Mitchell D., Prescott RL. 1983
Immunoreactive beta-endorphin increases after an aspartame chocolate drink in healthy human subjects. Melchior JC., Rigaud D., Colas-Linhart N., Petiet A., Girard A., Apfelbaum M. 1991
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