Advanced Search

Study Preview



Study Title and Description

Elective surgery for diverticulitis is associated with high risk of intestinal diversion and hospital readmission in older adults.



Key Questions Addressed
4 KEY QUESTION 4 KQ 4: What are the effects, comparative effects, and harms of pharmacological interventions (e.g., mesalamine), non-pharmacological interventions (e.g., medical nutrition therapy), and elective surgery to prevent recurrent diverticulitis? • Do the (comparative) effects and harms vary by patient characteristics, course of illness, or other factors?
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |

Primary Publication Information
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
TitleData
Title Elective surgery for diverticulitis is associated with high risk of intestinal diversion and hospital readmission in older adults.
Author Lidor AO., Schneider E., Segal J., Yu Q., Feinberg R., Wu AW.
Country Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 N. Wolfe Street, Blalock 610, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. alidor1@jhmi.edu
Year 2010
Numbers Pubmed ID: 20878256

Secondary Publication Information
UI Title Author Country Year
Congestive heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease predict poor surgical outcomes in older adults undergoing elective diverticulitis surgery. Sheer AJ., Heckman JE., Schneider EB., Wu AW., Segal JB., Feinberg R., Lidor AO. Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA. 2011
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |



Extraction Form: Extraction Form for KQs 2 and 4
Arms
Number Title Description Comments
1 Elective surgery
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |

Design Details
Question... Follow Up Answer Follow-up Answer
Specific KQ KQ 4c: Surgery (recur prev)
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Study Design Other single group study (for harms only)
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Country USA
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Funder Non-industry (fully)
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Study name
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Associated articles 21979190
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Start and end years of the Study 2004
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
2007
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Inclusion criteria >=65 years old; primary admission diagnosis of diverticulitis by ICD-9
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Exclusion criteria concurrent diagnosis of colorectal cancer
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
if not an RCT, what was the directionality? Retrospective
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Specific population? ... Population specified... ... >=65
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Was diverticulitis diagnosed with CT? ... Unclear/Multiple methods (explain) ... no information on diagnosis methods
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
If NRCS, what analytic method was used to account for differences between study arms?
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
How was diverticulitis diagnosed NR
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Note/Comment about Design (or overall study)
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |


Baseline Characteristics
Question Elective surgery Total Comments
AnswerFollow-up AnswerFollow-up
Participant race/ethnicity characteristics Male 28.9
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
White 95.35
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Black 3.1
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Other (or specific) race/ethnicity 1 - include race/ethnicity in parentheses 1.55 (other)
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Participant Age - Continuous data (in years) Mean 73.9
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
SD 5.9
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Participant Age - Categorical data 65-69
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
28.8
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
70-74
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
29.7
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
75-79
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
23.5
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
80-85
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
12.6
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
85+
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
5.5
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Participants with Un/Complicated Diverticulitis No data entered.
Specific Complications of Diverticulitis 100
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Number of Prior Episodes of Diverticulitis (categorical) Not reported
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
History of (Prior) Complicated Diverticulitis Not reported
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
KQ 4: Time Since Last Episode of Diverticulitis Not reported
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Note/Comment about baseline characteristics No data entered.
Number of Prior Episodes of Diverticulitis (continuous) Not reported
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |



Results & Comparisons


Results Data
Outcome: Mortality - All-cause (non-AE)      Population: All Participants
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


in hospital days

N Analyzed 23764
Counts 329
Percentage 1.4
Outcome: AE - Return to OR or unplanned procedure (CD III)      Population: All Participants
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 23764
Counts 3006
Percentage 12.7
Outcome: Hospitalization (or re-hospitalization) for diverticulitis (avoidance)      Population: All Participants
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 23764
Counts 2799
Percentage 11.9
Outcome: AE - 30 day mortality (post-surgical, CD V)      Population: All Participants
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 22752
Counts 277
Percentage 1.22
Outcome: AE - 30 day mortality (post-surgical, CD V)      Population: Age 65-69
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 6622
Counts
Percentage
note reference category
Outcome: AE - 30 day mortality (post-surgical, CD V)      Population: Age 70-74
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 6817
Counts
Percentage
note OR 1.6 (95% CI 1.05, 2.61)
Outcome: AE - 30 day mortality (post-surgical, CD V)      Population: Age 75-79
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 5336
Counts
Percentage
note OR 2.8 (95% CI 2.46, 6.05)
Outcome: AE - 30 day mortality (post-surgical, CD V)      Population: Age 80-84
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 2816
Counts
Percentage
note OR 3.8 (95% CI 2.46, 6.05)
Outcome: AE - 30 day mortality (post-surgical, CD V)      Population: Age 85+
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 1161
Counts
Percentage
note OR 10.2 (95% CI 6.49, 15.98)
Outcome: AE - 30 day mortality (post-surgical, CD V)      Population: COPD
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 3907
Counts 4116
Percentage
note compared to no COPD OR 1.2 (95% CI 0.91, 1.63)
Outcome: AE - 30 day mortality (post-surgical, CD V)      Population: CHF
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 1486
Counts
Percentage
note compared to no CHF OR 3.5 (95% CI 2.59, 4.63)
Outcome: AE - Return to OR or unplanned procedure (CD III)      Population: All Participants
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 22752
Counts 2071
Percentage 9.1
note
Outcome: AE - Return to OR or unplanned procedure (CD III)      Population: Age 65-69
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 6622
Counts
Percentage
note reference category
Outcome: AE - Return to OR or unplanned procedure (CD III)      Population: Age 70-74
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 6817
Counts
Percentage
note OR 1.1 (95%CI 0.98, 1.29)
Outcome: AE - Return to OR or unplanned procedure (CD III)      Population: Age 75-79
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 5336
Counts
Percentage
note OR 1.1 (95%CI 1.28, 1.68)
Outcome: AE - Return to OR or unplanned procedure (CD III)      Population: Age 80-84
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 2816
Counts
Percentage
note OR 2.2 (95%CI 1.92, 2.58)
Outcome: AE - Return to OR or unplanned procedure (CD III)      Population: Age 85+
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 1161
Counts
Percentage
note OR 4.3 (95%CI 3.69, 5.29)
Outcome: AE - Return to OR or unplanned procedure (CD III)      Population: COPD
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 4116
Counts
Percentage
note OR 1.1 (95%CI 0.98, 1.25)
Outcome: AE - Return to OR or unplanned procedure (CD III)      Population: CHF
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 1486
Counts
Percentage
note OR 1.9 (95%CI 1.68, 2.27)
Outcome: AE - Return to OR or unplanned procedure (CD III)      Population: All Participants
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed
Counts
Percentage
note
Outcome: AE - Return to OR or unplanned procedure (CD III)      Population: Age 65-69
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 6622
Counts
Percentage
note reference category
Outcome: AE - Return to OR or unplanned procedure (CD III)      Population: Age 70-74
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 6817
Counts
Percentage
note OR 1.3 (95%CI 1.05, 1.74)
Outcome: AE - Return to OR or unplanned procedure (CD III)      Population: Age 75-79
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 5336
Counts
Percentage
note OR 1.4 (95%CI 1.11, 1.90)
Outcome: AE - Return to OR or unplanned procedure (CD III)      Population: Age 80-84
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 2816
Counts
Percentage
note OR 1.9 (95%CI 1.42, 2.52)
Outcome: AE - Return to OR or unplanned procedure (CD III)      Population: Age 85+
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 1161
Counts
Percentage
note OR 1.0 (95%CI 0.59, 1.61)
Outcome: AE - Return to OR or unplanned procedure (CD III)      Population: COPD
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 4116
Counts
Percentage
note OR 1.1 (95%CI 0.87, 1.41)
Outcome: AE - Return to OR or unplanned procedure (CD III)      Population: CHF
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 1486
Counts
Percentage
note OR 1.2 (95%CI 0.88, 1.77)
Outcome: AE - Bleed requiring transfusion (CD II)      Population: All Participants
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 22752
Counts 470
Percentage 1.98
note
Outcome: AE - Bleed requiring transfusion (CD II)      Population: Age 65-69
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 6622
Counts
Percentage
note reference category
Outcome: AE - Bleed requiring transfusion (CD II)      Population: Age 70-74
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 6817
Counts
Percentage
note OR 1.0 (95%CI 0.75, 1.32)
Outcome: AE - Bleed requiring transfusion (CD II)      Population: Age 75-79
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 5336
Counts
Percentage
note OR 1.4 (95%CI 1.09, 1.80)
Outcome: AE - Bleed requiring transfusion (CD II)      Population: Age 80-84
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 2816
Counts
Percentage
note OR 1.1 (95%CI 0.82, 1.60)
Outcome: AE - Bleed requiring transfusion (CD II)      Population: Age 85+
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 1161
Counts
Percentage
note OR 1.1 (95%CI 0.74, 1.72)
Outcome: AE - Bleed requiring transfusion (CD II)      Population: COPD
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 4116
Counts
Percentage
note OR 0.8 (95%CI 0.63, 1.11)
Outcome: AE - Bleed requiring transfusion (CD II)      Population: CHF
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed
Counts
Percentage
note
Outcome: AE - Infection requiring Abx (CD II)      Population: All Participants
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 22752
Counts 1052
Percentage
note
Outcome: AE - Infection requiring Abx (CD II)      Population: Age 65-69
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 6622
Counts
Percentage
note reference category
Outcome: AE - Infection requiring Abx (CD II)      Population: Age 70-74
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 6817
Counts
Percentage
note OR 0.9 (95%CI 0.80, 1.10)
Outcome: AE - Infection requiring Abx (CD II)      Population: Age 75-79
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 5336
Counts
Percentage
note OR 0.9 (95%CI 0.79, 1.12)
Outcome: AE - Infection requiring Abx (CD II)      Population: Age 80-84
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 2816
Counts
Percentage
note OR 0.7 (95%CI 0.56, 0.89)
Outcome: AE - Infection requiring Abx (CD II)      Population: Age 85+
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed
Counts
Percentage
note
Outcome: AE - Infection requiring Abx (CD II)      Population: COPD
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 4116
Counts
Percentage
note OR 1.4 (95%CI 1.19, 1.67)
Outcome: AE - Infection requiring Abx (CD II)      Population: CHF
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 1486
Counts
Percentage
note OR 1.9 (95%CI 1.50, 2.39)
Outcome: AE - Infection requiring Abx (CD II)      Population: All Participants
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 22752
Counts 1782
Percentage 7.5
note
Outcome: AE - Infection requiring Abx (CD II)      Population: Age 65-69
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 6622
Counts
Percentage
note reference
Outcome: AE - Infection requiring Abx (CD II)      Population: Age 70-74
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 6817
Counts
Percentage
note OR 1.1 (95%CI 0.98, 1.33)
Outcome: AE - Infection requiring Abx (CD II)      Population: Age 75-79
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 5336
Counts
Percentage
note OR 1.5 (95%CI 1.32, 1.80)
Outcome: AE - Infection requiring Abx (CD II)      Population: Age 80-84
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 2816
Counts
Percentage
note OR 1.9 (95%CI 1.60, 2.22)
Outcome: AE - Infection requiring Abx (CD II)      Population: Age 85+
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 1161
Counts
Percentage
note OR 2.8 (95%CI 2.26, 3.40)
Outcome: AE - Infection requiring Abx (CD II)      Population: COPD
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 4116
Counts
Percentage
note OR 2.2 (95%CI 1.94, 2.50)
Outcome: AE - Infection requiring Abx (CD II)      Population: CHF
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 1486
Counts
Percentage
note OR 4.2 (95%CI 3.59, 4.85)
Outcome: AE - Serious (SAE)      Population: All Participants
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 22752
Counts 490
Percentage 2.49
note
Outcome: AE - Serious (SAE)      Population: Age 65-69
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed
Counts
Percentage
note ref
Outcome: AE - Serious (SAE)      Population: Age 70-74
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 6817
Counts
Percentage
note OR 1.3 (95%CI 0.98, 1.63)
Outcome: AE - Serious (SAE)      Population: Age 75-79
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 5336
Counts
Percentage
note OR 1.7 (95%CI 1.34, 2.22)
Outcome: AE - Serious (SAE)      Population: Age 80-84
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 2816
Counts
Percentage
note OR 1.7 (95%CI 1.26, 2.25)
Outcome: AE - Serious (SAE)      Population: Age 85+
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed
Counts
Percentage
note
Outcome: AE - Serious (SAE)      Population: COPD
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 4116
Counts
Percentage
note OR 0.9 (95%CI 0.74, 1.17)
Outcome: AE - Serious (SAE)      Population: CHF
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 1486
Counts
Percentage
note OR 4.1 (95%CI 3.22, 5.12)
Outcome: AE - Major cardiac event (CD IV)      Population: All Participants
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 22752
Counts 594
Percentage 2.5
note
Outcome: AE - Major cardiac event (CD IV)      Population: Age 65-69
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 6622
Counts
Percentage
note reference
Outcome: AE - Major cardiac event (CD IV)      Population: Age 70-74
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 6817
Counts
Percentage
note OR 1.1 (95%CI 0.87, 1.45)
Outcome: AE - Major cardiac event (CD IV)      Population: Age 75-79
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 5336
Counts
Percentage
note OR 1.4 (95%CI 1.12, 1.85)
Outcome: AE - Major cardiac event (CD IV)      Population: Age 80-84
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 2816
Counts
Percentage
note OR 1.7 (95%CI 1.28, 2.24)
Outcome: AE - Major cardiac event (CD IV)      Population: Age 85+
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 1161
Counts
Percentage
note OR 2.2 (95%CI 1.59, 3.09)
Outcome: AE - Major cardiac event (CD IV)      Population: COPD
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 4116
Counts
Percentage
note OR 0.9 (95%CI 0.76, 1.20)
Outcome: AE - Major cardiac event (CD IV)      Population: CHF
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 1486
Counts
Percentage
note OR 4.6 (95%CI 3.68, 5.74)
Outcome: AE - Sepsis (CD IV)      Population: All Participants
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 22752
Counts 495
Percentage 2.08
note
Outcome: AE - Sepsis (CD IV)      Population: Age 65-69
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 6622
Counts
Percentage
note reference
Outcome: AE - Sepsis (CD IV)      Population: Age 70-74
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 6817
Counts
Percentage
note OR 1.1 (95%CI 0.81, 1.48)
Outcome: AE - Sepsis (CD IV)      Population: Age 75-79
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 5336
Counts
Percentage
note OR 1.6 (95%CI 1.23, 2.19)
Outcome: AE - Sepsis (CD IV)      Population: Age 80-84
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 2816
Counts
Percentage
note OR 2.3 (95%CI 1.69, 3.14)
Outcome: AE - Sepsis (CD IV)      Population: Age 85+
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 1161
Counts
Percentage
note OR 3.5 (95%CI 2.47, 4.98)
Outcome: AE - Sepsis (CD IV)      Population: COPD
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 4116
Counts
Percentage
note OR 1.1 (95%CI 0.82, 1.38)
Outcome: AE - Sepsis (CD IV)      Population: CHF
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 1486
Counts
Percentage
note OR 3.2 (95%CI 2.53, 4.35)
Outcome: AE - DVT      Population: All Participants
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 22752
Counts 259
Percentage 1.09
note
Outcome: AE - DVT      Population: Age 65-69
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 6622
Counts
Percentage
note reference
Outcome: AE - DVT      Population: Age 70-74
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 6817
Counts
Percentage
note OR 1.0 (95%CI 0.72, 1.46)
Outcome: AE - DVT      Population: Age 75-79
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 5336
Counts
Percentage
note OR 1.3 (95%CI 0.90, 1.83)
Outcome: AE - DVT      Population: Age 80-84
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed
Counts
Percentage
note OR 1.4 (95% CI 0.90, 2.01)
Outcome: AE - DVT      Population: Age 85+
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 1161
Counts
Percentage
note OR 1.3 (95%CI 0.72, 2.30)
Outcome: AE - DVT      Population: COPD
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed 4116
Counts
Percentage
note OR 1.0 (95%CI 0.71, 1.42)
Outcome: AE - DVT      Population: CHF
Time Point Measure Elective surgery


30 days

N Analyzed
Counts
Percentage
note OR 1.6 (95%CI 1.00, 2.43)


Quality Dimensions
Dimension Value Notes Comments
Q14: Cochrane - Random sequence generation (selection bias): Selection bias (biased allocation to interventions) due to inadequate generation of a randomized sequence
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Q15: Cochrane - Allocation concealment (selection bias): Selection bias (biased allocation to interventions) due to inadequate concealment of allocations prior to assignment
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Q16: Cochrane - Blinding of participants (performance bias): Performance bias due to knowledge of the allocated interventions by participants during the study
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Q17: Cochrane - Blinding of personnel/ care providers (performance bias): Performance bias due to knowledge of the allocated interventions by personnel/care providers during the study.
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Q18: Cochrane - FOR OBJECTIVE OUTCOMES - Blinding of outcome assessor (detection bias): Detection bias due to knowledge of the allocated interventions by outcome assessors.
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Q20: Cochrane - Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias): Attrition bias due to amount, nature or handling of incomplete outcome data Low
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Q21: Cochrane - Selective Reporting (reporting bias): Reporting bias due to selective outcome reporting High only 3 AEs reported
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Q22: Cochrane - Other Bias: Bias due to problems not covered elsewhere in the table. If yes, describe them in the Notes. Low
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Q1: ROBINS-I 1.1 Is there potential for confounding of the effect of intervention in this study?
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Q3: ROBINS-I 1.4. Did the authors use an appropriate analysis method that controlled for all the important confounding domains?
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Q4: ROBINS-I 1.5. If Y/PY to 1.4: Were confounding domains that were controlled for measured validly and reliably by the variables available in this study?
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Q5: ROBINS-I 1.6. Did the authors control for any post-intervention variables that could have been affected by the intervention?
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Q6: ROBINS-I - Risk of bias judgement for BIAS DUE TO CONFOUNDING
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Q7: ROBINS-I 2.1. Was selection of participants into the study (or into the analysis) based on participant characteristics observed after the start of intervention?
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Q8: ROBINS-I 2.2. If Y/PY to 2.1: Were the post-intervention variables that influenced selection likely to be associated with intervention?
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Q9: ROBINS-I 2.3 If Y/PY to 2.2: Were the post-intervention variables that influenced selection likely to be influenced by the outcome or a cause of the outcome?
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Q10: ROBINS-I 2.4. Do start of follow-up and start of intervention coincide for most participants?
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Q12: ROBINS-I 2.5. If Y/PY to 2.2 and 2.3, or N/PN to 2.4: Were adjustment techniques used that are likely to correct for the presence of selection biases?
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Q13: ROBINS-I - Risk of bias judgement for BIAS IN SELECTION OF PARTICIPANTS INTO THE STUDY
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Q2: Did the study divide the follow up time of each individual participant into the different interventions?
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Q11: Did the start and follow up calendar years coincide for most participants in the study?
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Q19: Cochrane - FOR SUBJECTIVE OUTCOMES - Blinding of outcome assessor (detection bias): Detection bias due to knowledge of the allocated interventions by outcome assessors.
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Q23: NHLBI - Were eligibility/selection criteria for the study population prespecified and clearly described? Yes
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Q24: NHLBI - Was the test/service/intervention clearly described and delivered consistently across the study population? Yes
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |
Q25: NHLBI - Were the outcome measures prespecified, clearly defined, valid, reliable, and assessed consistently across all study participants? Yes
  • Comments Comments (
    0
    ) |

Quality Rating
No quality rating data was found.