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Project: Low-Calorie Sweeteners and Health: An Evidence Map Database

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Title Low-Calorie Sweeteners and Health: An Evidence Map Database
Description Low-calorie sweeteners (LCS), also known as sugar substitutes, non-nutritive sweeteners, or artificial sweeteners, are ingredients added to foods and beverages to provide sweetness without adding a significant amount of calories. A large body of literature evidence exists on low-calorie sweeteners yet the health effects of LCS beyond body weight or composition remain unknown and have not been systematically reviewed. As evidence and interest on LCS continues to grow, there is the need to understand the potential effects of low-calorie sweeteners. LCS evidence map is a database that collects the features and characteristics of the LCS studies. (Paper PMID:26728979). LCS database includes data on study design (study design and duration), population (baseline health status, age, sample size, anthropometrics), intervention/comparison (type of LCS, comparisons or control groups, numbers of people analyzed, forms of administration), and outcomes/study endpoint. In addition, study aim/hypothesis and funding source were also collected. (LCS Manual and database Code book available through: http://static-content.springer.com/esm/art%3A10.1186%2Fs12874-015-0105-z/MediaObjects/12874_2015_105_MOESM2_ESM.docx). Outcomes were also coded into clinically and biologically relevant outcome groups, classified by the research team and a stakeholder panel, to better describe data in the map (See Outcome Groups Table in the codebook). Database Objectives • Provide a database of existing literature on LCS and health outcomes. • Index key features and characteristics for quick summary report generation. • Help identify LCS and health effect of interest and identify gaps in LCS research • Systematically collect information to support further evidence synthesis
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Contributor(s) Ding Ding Wang, BS, MPH; Marissa Shams-White, L.Ac, MS, MPH; Oliver John Bright, BS; Mei Chung, PhD, MPH (Principal Investigator)
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Methodology The goal of this Low-calorie sweetener evidence map is to provide existing low-calorie sweeteners studies readily in a database, describe the studies, and assist health researches in linking LCS to health outcomes efficiently. The following six areas of research regarding the potential effects of LCS were all considered and included: 1) energy sensing by the brain, 2) gut hormones that may influence energy homeostasis, 3) taste preference and satiety, 4) Dietary intake, and 5) body weight and composition.
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DOI 10.7301/Z0KK98PW
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Funding Source Supported by North American branch of the International Life Sciences Institutes (ILSI), Carbohydrates Committee. More information on Low-calorie sweeteners can be found at: http://www.ilsi.org/NorthAmerica/Pages/LowCalorieSweeteners.aspx.
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Notes LCS Method Paper PMID: 26728979 Data was entered retrospectively
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Key Questions

1 What are the association between low-calorie sweeteners and health?
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Associated Extraction Forms

Title Created by Key Questions Addressed Form Notes
LCS-RCT Deena Wang 1


Associated Studies (each link opens a new tab)

Title Author Year
Sucralose affects glycemic and hormonal responses to an oral glucose load. Pepino MY, Tiemann CD, Patterson BW, Wice BM, Klein S. 2013
Influence of sucrose ingestion on brainstem and hypothalamic intrinsic oscillations in lean and obese women. Kilpatrick LA, Coveleskie K, Connolly L, Labus JS, Ebrat B, Stains J, Jiang Z, Suyenobu BY, Raybould HE, Tillisch K, Mayer EA. 2014
Effects on obese women of the sugar sucrose added to the diet over 28 d: a quasi-randomised, single-blind, controlled trial. Reid M, Hammersley R, Duffy M, Ballantyne C. 2014
Preference mapping of lemon lime carbonated beverages with regular and diet beverage consumers. Leksrisompong PP, Lopetcharat K, Guthrie B, Drake MA. 2013
Sensory characteristics and relative sweetness of tagatose and other sweeteners. Fujimaru T, Park JH, Lim J. 2012
Near-infrared imaging of the effects of glucose ingestion and regulation on prefrontal activation during dual-task execution in healthy fasting older Adults. Gagnon C, Desjardins-Crépeau L, Tournier I, Desjardins M, Lesage F, Greenwood CE, Bherer L. 2012
The effect of sugar-free versus sugar-sweetened beverages on satiety, liking and wanting: an 18 month randomized double-blind trial in Children. de Ruyter JC, Katan MB, Kuijper LD, Liem DG, Olthof MR. 2013
Differences in brain responses between lean and obese women to a sweetened drink. Connolly L, Coveleskie K, Kilpatrick LA, Labus JS, Ebrat B, Stains J, Jiang Z, Tillisch K, Raybould HE, Mayer EA. 2013
Does diet-beverage intake affect dietary consumption patterns? Results from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial. Piernas C, Tate DF, Wang X, Popkin BM. 2013
Effects of a D-xylose preload with or without sitagliptin on gastric emptying, glucagon-like peptide-1, and postprandial glycemia in type 2 diabetes. Wu T, Bound MJ, Zhao BR, Standfield SD, Bellon M, Jones KL, Horowitz M, Rayner CK. 2013
A trial of sugar-free or sugar-sweetened beverages and body weight in Children. de Ruyter JC, Olthof MR, Seidell JC, Katan MB. 2012
A randomized trial of sugar-sweetened beverages and adolescent body weight. Ebbeling CB, Feldman HA, Chomitz VR, Antonelli TA, Gortmaker SL, Osganian SK, Ludwig DS. 2012
Human sensory preconditioning in a flavor preference paradigm. Privitera GJ, Mulcahey CP, Orlowski CM. 2012
Altered processing of sweet taste in the brain of diet soda drinkers. Green E, Murphy C. 2012
Overweight and obese boys reduce food intake in response to a glucose drink but fail to increase intake in response to exercise of short duration. Tamam S, Bellissimo N, Patel BP, Thomas SG, Anderson GH. 2012
Satiety scores and satiety hormone response after sucrose-sweetened soft drink compared with isocaloric semi-skimmed milk and with non-caloric soft drink: a controlled trial. Maersk M, Belza A, Holst JJ, Fenger-Grøn M, Pedersen SB, Astrup A, Richelsen B. 2012
Sucrose-sweetened beverages increase fat storage in the liver, muscle, and visceral fat depot: a 6-mo randomized intervention study. Maersk M, Belza A, Stødkilde-Jørgensen H, Ringgaard S, Chabanova E, Thomsen H, Pedersen SB, Astrup A, Richelsen B. 2011
Effects of different sweet preloads on incretin hormone secretion, gastric emptying, and postprandial glycemia in healthy humans. Wu T, Zhao BR, Bound MJ, Checklin HL, Bellon M, Little TJ, Young RL, Jones KL, Horowitz M, Rayner CK. 2011
Short-term consumption of sucralose, a nonnutritive sweetener, is similar to water with regard to select markers of hunger signaling and short-term glucose homeostasis in women. Brown AW, Bohan Brown MM, Onken KL, Beitz DC. 2011
Television viewing at mealtime reduces caloric compensation in peripubertal, but not postpubertal, girls. Patel BP, Bellissimo N, Thomas SG, Hamilton JK, Anderson GH. 2011
The effect of sugar-sweetened beverage intake on energy intake in an ad libitum 6-month low-fat high-carbohydrate diet. Munsters MJ, Saris WH. 2010
Learned liking versus inborn delight: can sweetness give sensual pleasure or is it just motivating? Booth DA, Higgs S, Schneider J, Klinkenberg I. 2010
Consumption of caloric and non-caloric versions of a soft drink differentially affects brain activation during tasting. Smeets PA, Weijzen P, de Graaf C, Viergever MA. 2010
Assessing the palatability of oral rehydration solutions in school-aged Children: a randomized crossover trial. Freedman SB, Cho D, Boutis K, Stephens D, Schuh S. 2010
Are caloric beverages compensated for in the short-term by young Adults? An investigation with particular focus on gender differences. Ranawana DV, Henry CJ. 2010
Users of 'diet' drinks who think that sweetness is calories. Freeman RP, Booth DA. 2010
Use of aspartame by apparently healthy Children and adolescents. Frey GH. 1976
Mutual action of taste and olfaction. Murphy C, Cain WS, Bartoshuk LM. 1977
Effect of covert nutritive dilution on the spontaneous food intake of obese individuals: a pilot study. Porikos KP, Booth G, Van Itallie TB. 1977
Administration of aspartame in non-insulin-dependent diabetics. Stern SB, Bleicher SJ, Flores A, Gombos G, Recitas D, Shu J. 1976
Immunoreactive beta-endorphin increases after an aspartame chocolate drink in healthy human subjects. Melchior JC, Rigaud D, Colas-Linhart N, Petiet A, Girard A, Apfelbaum M. 1991
Soft drinks with aspartame: effect on subjective hunger, food selection, and food intake of young adult males. Black RM, Tanaka P, Leiter LA, Anderson GH. 1991
The effectiveness of different sweeteners in suppressing citric acid sourness. Schifferstein HN, Frijters JE. 1991
Responses to an intense sweetener in humans: immediate preference and delayed effects on intake. Monneuse MO, Bellisle F, Louis-Sylverstre J. 1991
Comparative effects of fructose, aspartame, glucose, and water preloads on calorie and macronutrient intake. Rodin J. 1990
Effects of drinks sweetened with sucrose or aspartame on hunger, thirst and food intake in men. Rolls BJ, Kim S, Fedoroff IC. 1990
Sensory/mixability preference evaluation of cholestyramine powder formulations. Shaefer MS, Jungnickel PW, Miwa LJ, Marquis NR, Hutton GD. 1990
Oral stimulation with aspartame increases hunger. Tordoff MG, Alleva AM. 1990
Aspartame ingested without tasting inhibits hunger and food intake. Rogers PJ, Pleming HC, Blundell JE. 1990
Children's food intake following drinks sweetened with sucrose or aspartame: time course effects. Birch LL, McPhee L, Sullivan S. 1989
Hunger and food intake following consumption of low-calorie foods. Rolls BJ, Laster LJ, Summerfelt A. 1989
Aspartame: effect on lunch-time food intake, appetite and hedonic response in Children. Anderson GH, Saravis S, Schacher R, Zlotkin S, Leiter LA. 1989
Separating the actions of sweetness and calories: effects of saccharin and carbohydrates on hunger and food intake in human subjects. Rogers PJ, Blundell JE. 1989
Aspartame-sweetened beverage: effect on plasma amino acid concentrations in normal Adults and Adults heterozygous for phenylketonuria. Stegink LD, Wolf-Novak LC, Filer LJ Jr, Bell EF, Ziegler EE, Krause WL, Brummel MC. 1987
Effects of sweetness perception and caloric value of a preload on short term intake. Brala PM, Hagen RL. 1983
The effects of equal caloric amounts of xylitol, sucrose and starch on insulin requirements and blood glucose levels in insulin-dependent diabetics. Hassinger W, Sauer G, Cordes U, Krause U, Beyer J, Baessler KH. 1981
Caloric regulation in normal-weight men maintained on a palatable diet of conventional foods. Porikos KP, Hesser MF, van Itallie TB. 1982
Multiple receptor sites mediate sweetness: evidence from cross adaptation. Schiffman SS, Cahn H, Lindley MG. 1981
Molecular mechanism of sweet taste: relationship of hydrogen bonding to taste sensitivity for both young and elderly. Schiffman SS, Lindley MG, Clark TB, Makino C. 1981
Sweetener preference among non-institutionalized older Adults. Walter JM, Soliah L. 1995
Sweet taste: effect on cephalic phase insulin release in men. Teff KL, Devine J, Engelman K. 1995
Bitterness of sweeteners as a function of concentration. Schiffman SS, Booth BJ, Losee ML, Pecore SD, Warwick ZS. 1995
Treatment of porto-systemic encephalopathy with lactitol verus lactulose: a randomized controlled study. Pai CH, Huang YS, Jeng WC, Chan CY, Lee SD. 1995
Interaction of salivary flow with temporal perception of sweetness, sourness, and fruitiness. Bonnans SR, Noble AC. 1995
The effect of sweeteners on bitter taste in young and elderly subjects. Schiffman SS, Gatlin LA, Sattely-Miller EA, Graham BG, Heiman SA, Stagner WC, Erickson RP. 1994
Does type of milk beverage affect lunchtime eating patterns and food choice by preschool Children? Wilson JF. 1994
Effects of liquid preloads with different fructose/fibre concentrations on subsequent food intake and ratings of hunger in women. Van de Ven ML, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Wouters L, Saris WH. 1994
The effects of aspartame versus sucrose on motivational ratings, taste preferences, and energy intakes in obese and lean women. Drewnowski A, Massien C, Louis-Sylvestre J, Fricker J, Chapelot D, Apfelbaum M. 1994
The effects of sucrose on everyday eating in normal weight men and women. Reid M, Hammersley R. 1994
Adaptation of sweeteners in water and in tannic acid solutions. Schiffman SS, Pecore SD, Booth BJ, Losee ML, Carr BT, Sattely-Miller E, Graham BG, Warwick ZS. 1994
Comparing the effects of aspartame and sucrose on motivational ratings, taste preferences, and energy intakes in humans. Drewnowski A, Massien C, Louis-Sylvestre J, Fricker J, Chapelot D, Apfelbaum M. 1994
Consuming aspartame with and without taste: differential effects on appetite and food intake of young adult males. Black RM, Leiter LA, Anderson GH. 1993
Taste and smell sensations enhance the satiating effect of both a high-carbohydrate and a high-fat meal in humans. Warwick ZS, Hall WG, Pappas TN, Schiffman SS. 1993
Speed and consistency of human decisions to swallow or spit sweet and sour solutions. Delconte JD, Kelling ST, Halpern BP. 1992
Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. Anton SD, Martin CK, Han H, Coulon S, Cefalu WT, Geiselman P, Williamson DA. 2010
Effects of context on sweet and bitter tastes: unrelated to sensitivity to PROP (6-n-propylthiouracil). Rankin KM, Marks LE. 1992
Time-quality tracking of monosodium glutamate, sodium saccharin, and a citric acid-saccharin mixture. Zwillinger SA, Halpern BP. 1991
Similarity assessment and attribute scaling of sucrose and aspartame in grape drink. Christensen L, Archer S. 1990
Effects of aspartame and sucrose on hunger and energy intake in humans. Mattes R. 1990
Lactitol vs. lactulose in the treatment of chronic recurrent portal-systemic encephalopathy. Heredia D, Terés J, Orteu N, Rodés J. 1988
Comparison of the effects of aspartame and sucrose on appetite and food intake. Rolls BJ, Hetherington M, Laster LJ. 1988
Use of aspartame to test the body weight set point" hypothesis." Van Itallie TB, Yang MU, Porikos KP. 1988
An evaluation of the effect of aspartame on weight loss. Kanders BS, Lavin PT, Kowalchuk MB, Greenberg I, Blackburn GL. 1988
The effect of cooling on the perception of carbohydrate and intensive sweeteners. Green BG, Frankmann SP. 1988
Uncoupling sweet taste and calories: comparison of the effects of glucose and three intense sweeteners on hunger and food intake. Rogers PJ, Carlyle JA, Hill AJ, Blundell JE. 1988
Lactitol versus lactulose in the treatment of chronic hepatic encephalopathy. A double-blind, randomised, cross-over study. Morgan MY, Hawley KE, Stambuk D. 1987
Cephalic phase metabolic responses in normal weight Adults. Bruce DG, Storlien LH, Furler SM, Chisholm DJ. 1987
Effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake. Shafer RB, Levine AS, Marlette JM, Morley JE. 1987
Phenylalanine and aspartame fail to alter feeding behavior, mood and arousal in men. Ryan-Harshman M, Leiter LA, Anderson GH. 1987
Comparison of aspartame- and fructose-sweetened layer cakes: importance of panels of users for evaluation of alternative sweeteners. Hess DA, Setser CS. 1986
Collaborative WHO xylitol field studies in Hungary. II. General background and control of the dietary regimen. Banoczy J, Scheinin A, Pados R, Ember G, Kertész P, Pienihäkkinen K. 1985
Sensory evaluation of soft drinks with various sweeteners. Schiffman SS, Crofton VA, Beeker TG. 1985
Acceptability of aspartame- and saccharin-sweetened fruits to users and nonusers of artificial sweeteners. Kunkel ME, Cody MM. 1985
Gustatory reaction time to various sweeteners in human Adults. Yamamoto T, Kato T, Matsuo R, Kawamura Y, Yoshida M. 1985
Human detectability thresholds for saccharin, sodium saccharin, and sodium chloride. Williams RA. 1970
Sweeteners: consumer acceptance in tea. Sprowl DJ, Ehrcke LA. 1984
Palatability of sucrose-, sorbitol-, and saccharin-sweetened activated charcoal formulations. Cooney DO. 1980
The effect of age on the recognition thresholds of three sweeteners: sucrose, saccharin and aspartame. Easterby-Smith V, Besford J, Heath MR. 1994
Sucrose compared with artificial sweeteners: different effects on ad libitum food intake and body weight after 10 wk of supplementation in overweight subjects. Raben A, Vasilaras TH, Moller AC, Astrup A 2002
Long-term dietary compensation for added sugar: effects of supplementary sucrose drinks over a 4-week period. Reid M, Hammersley R, Hill Aj, Skidmore P 2007
Replacing caloric beverages with water or diet beverages for weight loss in Adults: main results of the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial. Tate DF, Turner-McGrievy G, Lyons E, Stevens J, Erickson K, Polzien K, Diamond M, Wang X, Popkin B 2012
Effects of aspartame in young persons during weight reduction. Knopp RH, Brnadt K, Arky RA 1976
Effect of sucrose on the metabolic disposition of aspartame. Stegink LD, Brummel MC, Persoon TJ, Filer LJ Jr, Bell EF, Ziegler EE. 1990
Effect of drinking soda sweetened with aspartame or high-fructose corn syrup on food intake and body weight. Tordoff MG, Alleva AM. 1990
Xylitol vs glucose: effect on the rate of gastric emptying and motilin, insulin, and gastric inhibitory polypeptide release. Salminen EK, Salminen SJ, Porkka L, Kwasowski P, Marks V, Koivistoinen PE. 1989
Metabolic effects of adding sucrose and aspartame to the diet of subjects with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Colagiuri S, Miller JJ, Edwards RA. 1989
Sucrose versus saccharin as an added sweetener in non-insulin-dependent diabetes: short- and medium-term metabolic effects. Cooper PL, Wahlqvist ML, Simpson RW. 1988
Effect of carbohydrate feeding frequencies and dosage on muscle glycogen use during exercise. Fielding RA, Costill DL, Fink WJ, King DS, Hargreaves M, Kovaleski JE. 1985
Postingestive inhibition of food intake by aspartame: importance of interval between aspartame administration and subsequent eating. Rogers PJ, Burley VJ, Alikhanizadeh LA, Blundell JE. 1995
The effects of glucose on nonmemory cognitive functioning in the elderly. Allen JB, Gross AM, Aloia MS, Billingsley C. 1996
Glycemic effect of a single high oral dose of the novel sweetener sucralose in patients with diabetes. Mezitis NH, Maggio CA, Koch P, Quddoos A, Allison DB, Pi-Sunyer FX. 1996
The effect of aspartame as part of a multidisciplinary weight-control program on short- and long-term control of body weight. Blackburn GL, Kanders BS, Lavin PT, Keller SD, Whatley J. 1997
The effect of sucrose- and aspartame-sweetened drinks on energy intake, hunger and food choice of female, moderately restrained eaters. Lavin JH, French SJ, Read NW. 1997
Cephalic phase responses to sweet taste. Abdallah L, Chabert M, Louis-Sylvestre J. 1997
Metabolic response to lactitol and xylitol in healthy men. Natah SS, Hussien KR, Tuominen JA, Koivisto VA. 1997
Glucose-induced increase in memory performance in patients with schizophrenia. Newcomer JW, Craft S, Fucetola R, Moldin SO, Selke G, Paras L, Miller R. 1999
Blood glucose and meal patterns in time-blinded males, after aspartame, carbohydrate, and fat consumption, in relation to sweetness perception. Melanson KJ, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Campfield LA, Saris WH. 2000
The acute effect of D-tagatose on food intake in human subjects. Buemann B, Toubro S, Raben A, Blundell J, Astrup A. 2000
Genetic taste responses to 6-n-propylthiouracil among Adults: a screening tool for epidemiological studies. Drewnowski A, Kristal A, Cohen J. 2001
Liquid meal replacements and glycemic control in obese type 2 diabetes patients. Yip I, Go VL, DeShields S, Saltsman P, Bellman M, Thames G, Murray S, Wang HJ, Elashoff R, Heber D. 2001
Differential effects of glucose on modulation of emotional and nonemotional spatial memory tasks. Mohanty A, Flint RW Jr. 2002
Physiological mechanisms mediating aspartame-induced satiety. Hall WL, Millward DJ, Rogers PJ, Morgan LM. 2003
Sweeteners and beta-glucans improve metabolic and anthropometrics variables in well controlled type 2 diabetic patients. Reyna NY, Cano C, Bermúdez VJ, Medina MT, Souki AJ, Ambard M, Nuñez M, Ferrer MA, Inglett GE. 2003
Lack of effect of sucralose on glucose homeostasis in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Grotz VL, Henry RR, McGill JB, Prince MJ, Shamoon H, Trout JR, Pi-Sunyer FX. 2003
Influence of repeated consumption of beverages containing sucrose or intense sweeteners on food intake. Van Wymelbeke V, Béridot-Thérond ME, de La Guéronnière V, Fantino M. 2003
Antihyperglycemic effects of stevioside in type 2 diabetic subjects. Gregersen S, Jeppesen PB, Holst JJ, Hermansen K. 2003
Effects of isomalt consumption on gastrointestinal and metabolic parameters in healthy volunteers. Gostner A, Schäffer V, Theis S, Menzel T, Lührs H, Melcher R, Schauber J, Kudlich T, Dusel G, Dorbath D, Kozianowski G, Scheppach W. 2005
Attenuated response of the serum triglyceride concentration to ingestion of a chocolate containing polydextrose and lactitol in place of sugar. Shimomura Y, Maeda K, Nagasaki M, Matsuo Y, Murakami T, Bajotto G, Sato J, Seino T, Kamiwaki T, Suzuki M. 2005
Functional magnetic resonance imaging of human hypothalamic responses to sweet taste and calories. Smeets PA, de Graaf C, Stafleu A, van Osch MJ, van der Grond J. 2005
Effects of hunger state on flavour pleasantness conditioning at home: flavour-nutrient learning vs. flavour-flavour learning. Mobini S, Chambers LC, Yeomans MR. 2006
Artificially sweetened versus regular mixers increase gastric emptying and alcohol absorption. Wu KL, Chaikomin R, Doran S, Jones KL, Horowitz M, Rayner CK. 2006
Carbohydrate ingestion during prolonged high-intensity intermittent exercise: impact on affect and perceived exertion. Backhouse SH, Ali A, Biddle SJ, Williams C. 2007
Additive effects of flavour-caffeine and flavour-flavour pairings on liking for the smell and flavour of a novel drink. Yeomans MR, Mobini S, Chambers L. 2007
Chronic consumption of rebaudioside A, a steviol glycoside, in men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Maki KC, Curry LL, Reeves MS, Toth PD, McKenney JM, Farmer MV, Schwartz SL, Lubin BC, Boileau AC, Dicklin MR, Carakostas MC, Tarka SM. 2008
Cephalic phase insulin release in healthy humans after taste stimulation? Just T, Pau HW, Engel U, Hummel T. 2008
Carbohydrate sensing in the human mouth: effects on exercise performance and brain activity. Chambers ES, Bridge MW, Jones DA. 2009
Sweetness and bitterness taste of meals per se does not mediate gastric emptying in humans. Little TJ, Gupta N, Case RM, Thompson DG, McLaughlin JT. 2009
Reduced glycaemic and insulinaemic responses following isomaltulose ingestion: implications for postprandial substrate use. van Can JG, Ijzerman TH, van Loon LJ, Brouns F, Blaak EE. 2009
Manipulation of glycemic response with isomaltulose in a milk-based drink does not affect cognitive performance in healthy Adults. Dye L, Gilsenan MB, Quadt F, Martens VE, Bot A, Lasikiewicz N, Camidge D, Croden F, Lawton C. 2010
Modified sham feeding of sweet solutions in women with anorexia nervosa. Klein DA, Schebendach JE, Gershkovich M, Smith GP, Walsh BT. 2010
Effects of sucrose drinks on macronutrient intake, body weight, and mood state in overweight women over 4 weeks. Reid M, Hammersley R, Duffy M. 2010
Effects of oral ingestion of sucralose on gut hormone response and appetite in healthy normal-weight subjects. Ford HE, Peters V, Martin NM, Sleeth ML, Ghatei MA, Frost GS, Bloom SR. 2011
No observable differences in glycemic response to maltitol in human subjects from 3 ethnically diverse groups. Pratt M, Lightowler H, Henry CJ, Thabuis C, Wils D, Guérin-Deremaux L. 2011
Postprandial substrate use in overweight subjects with the metabolic syndrome after isomaltulose (Palatinoseâ„¢) ingestion. Konig D, Theis S, Kozianowski G, Berg A. 2012
Effects of diet soda on gut hormones in youths with diabetes. Brown RJ, Walter M, Rother KI. 2012
Metabolic effects of replacing sucrose by isomaltulose in subjects with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind trial. Brunner S, Holub I, Theis S, Gostner A, Melcher R, Wolf P, Amann-Gassner U, Scheppach W, Hauner H. 2012
Aspartame and sucrose produce a similar increase in the plasma phenylalanine to large neutral amino acid ratio in healthy subjects. Burns TS, Stargel WW, Tschanz C, Kotsonis FN, Hurwitz A. 1991
Further analysis of the short-term inhibition of food intake in humans by the dipeptide L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (aspartame). Rogers PJ, Keedwell P, Blundell JE. 1991
The neuropsychiatric effects of aspartame in normal volunteers. Lapierre KA, Greenblatt DJ, Goddard JE, Harmatz JS, Shader RI. 1990
Paradoxical effects of an intense sweetener (aspartame) on appetite. Blundell JE, Hill AJ. 1986
Response to single dose of aspartame or saccharin by NIDDM patients. Horwitz DL, McLane M, Kobe P. 1988
Effect of glucose polymer diet supplement on responses to prolonged successive swimming, cycling and running. Millard-Stafford ML, Cureton KJ, Ray CA. 1988
Sorbitol as a sweetener in the diet of insulin-dependent diabetes. Vaaler S, Bjørneklett A, Jelling I, Skrede G, Hanssen KF, Fausa O, Aagenaes O. 1987
Aspartame use by persons with diabetes. Nehrling JK, Kobe P, McLane MP, Olson RE, Kamath S, Horwitz DL. 1985
Carbohydrate ingestion before exercise: comparison of glucose, fructose, and sweet placebo. Koivisto VA, Karonen SL, Nikkilä EA. 1981
Effects of carbohydrate intake on subsequent food intake and mood state. Reid M, Hammersley R. 1995
Fructans of chicory: intestinal transport and fermentation of different chain lengths and relation to fructose and sorbitol malabsorption. Rumessen JJ, Gudmand-Høyer E. 1998
Sweet taste of aspartame and sucrose: effects on diet-induced thermogenesis. Prat-Larquemin L, Oppert JM, Bellisle F, Guy-Grand B. 2000
The comparative gastrointestinal responses of Children and Adults following consumption of sweets formulated with sucrose, isomalt and lycasin HBC. Lee A, Wils D, Zumbé A, Storey DM. 2002
Glucose effects on a continuous performance test of attention in Adults. Flint RW Jr, Turek C. 2003
Effects of an osmotically active agent on colonic transit. Skoog SM, Bharucha AE, Camilleri M, Burton DD, Zinsmeister AR. 2006
Gastrointestinal tolerance of erythritol and xylitol ingested in a liquid. Storey D, Lee A, Bornet F, Brouns F. 2007
Muscle metabolic, SR Ca(2+) -cycling responses to prolonged cycling, with and without glucose supplementation. Duhamel TA, Green HJ, Stewart RD, Foley KP, Smith IC, Ouyang J. 2007
Influence of artificial sweetener on human blood glucose concentration. Skokan I, Endler PC, Wulkersdorfer B, Magometschnigg D, Spranger H. 2007
Sip size of orangeade: effects on intake and sensory-specific satiation. Weijzen PL, Smeets PA, de Graaf C. 2009
Safer glycemic control using isomaltulose-based enteral formula: a pilot randomized crossover trial. Egi M, Toda Y, Katayama H, Yokoyama M, Morita K, Arai H, Yamatsuji T, Bailey M, Naomoto Y. 2009
Novel findings on the metabolic effects of the low glycaemic carbohydrate isomaltulose (Palatinose). Holub I, Gostner A, Theis S, Nosek L, Kudlich T, Melcher R, Scheppach W. 2010
Dessert formulation using sucralose and dextrin affects favorably postprandial response to glucose, insulin, and C-peptide in type 2 diabetic patients Argyri K, Sotiropoulos A, Psarou E, Papazafiropoulou A, Zampelas A, Kapsokefalou M 2013
Ingestion of diet soda before a glucose load augments glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion. Brown RJ, Walter M, Rother KI. 2009
Non-nutritive sweeteners: no class effect on the glycaemic or appetite responses to ingested glucose. Bryant CE1, Wasse LK1, Astbury N2, Nandra G1, McLaughlin JT1. 2014
A double-blind placebo-controlled study of the effectiveness and tolerability of oral stevioside in humanhypertension. Chan P1, Tomlinson B, Chen YJ, Liu JC, Hsieh MH, Cheng JT 2000
Effect of Stevia rebaudiana on glucose tolerance in normal adult humans. Curi R1, Alvarez M, Bazotte RB, Botion LM, Godoy JL, Bracht A. 1986
Investigation of the antihypertensive effect of oral crude stevioside in patients with mild essential hypertension. Ferri LA1, Alves-Do-Prado W, Yamada SS, Gazola S, Batista MR, Bazotte RB. 2006
Metabolism of stevioside by healthy subjects. Geuns JM1, Buyse J, Vankeirsbilck A, Temme EH. 2007
Efficacy and tolerability of oral stevioside in patients with mild essential hypertension: a two-year, randomized,placebo-controlled study. Hsieh MH1, Chan P, Sue YM, Liu JC, Liang TH, Huang TY, Tomlinson B, Chow MS, Kao PF, Chen YJ. 2003
Glucose tolerance, blood lipid, insulin and glucagon concentration after single or continuous administration ofaspartame in diabetics. Okuno G, Kawakami F, Tako H, Kashihara T, Shibamoto S, Yamazaki T, Yamamoto K, Saeki M. 1986
Increased postprandial glycaemia, insulinemia, and lipidemia after 10 weeks' sucrose-rich diet compared to anartificially sweetened diet: a randomised controlled trial. Raben A1, Møller BK, Flint A, Vasilaris TH, Christina Møller A, Juul Holst J, Astrup A. 2011
Effects of aspartame on diabetic rats and diabetic patients. Shigeta H, Yoshida T, Nakai M, Mori H, Kano Y, Nishioka H, Kajiyama S, Kitagawa Y, Kanatsuna T, Kondo M, et al. 1985
Aspartame in conjunction with carbohydrate reduces insulin levels during endurance exercise. Siegler J1, Howell K, Vince R, Bray J, Towlson C, Peart D, Mellor D, Atkin S. 2012
Sucralose enhances GLP-1 release and lowers blood glucose in the presence of carbohydrate in healthy subjectsbut not in patients with type 2 diabetes. Temizkan S1, Deyneli O1, Yasar M1, Arpa M2, Gunes M1, Yazici D1, Sirikci O2, Haklar G2, Imeryuz N3, Yavuz DG1. 2014
Aspartame ingestion with and without carbohydrate in phenylketonuric and normal subjects: effect on plasmaconcentrations of amino acids, glucose, and insulin. Wolf-Novak LC1, Stegink LD, Brummel MC, Persoon TJ, Filer LJ Jr, Bell EF, Ziegler EE, Krause WL 1990
Effects of decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption on body weight in adolescents: a randomized,controlled pilot study. Ebbeling CB1, Feldman HA, Osganian SK, Chomitz VR, Ellenbogen SJ, Ludwig DS. 2006
Extended use of foods modified in fat and sugar content: nutritional implications in a free-living female population Gatenby SJ1, Aaron JI, Jack VA, Mela DJ. 1997
The effects of water and non-nutritive sweetened beverages on weight loss during a 12-week weight losstreatment program. Peters JC1, Wyatt HR, Foster GD, Pan Z, Wojtanowski AC, Vander Veur SS, Herring SJ, Brill C, Hill JO. 2014
Effects of consumption of caloric vs noncaloric sweet drinks on indices of hunger and food consumption innormal adults. Canty DJ1, Chan MM. 1991
Effect of sugars in solutions on subjective appetite and short-term food intake in 9- to 14-year-old normal weightboys. Van Engelen M1, Khodabandeh S2, Akhavan T2, Agarwal J2, Gladanac B2, Bellissimo N2. 2014
The effects of sugar-free vs sugar-rich beverages on feelings of fullness and subsequent food intake. Holt SH., Sandona N., Brand-Miller JC. 2000
Effect of sucrose and safflower oil preloads on short term appetite and food intake of young men. Woodend DM., Anderson GH. 2001
Effect of drinking compared with eating sugars or whey protein on short-term appetite and food intake. Akhavan T., Luhovyy BL., Anderson GH. 2011
Metabolic and behavioral effects of a high-sucrose diet during weight loss. Surwit RS., Feinglos MN., McCaskill CC., Clay SL., Babyak MA., Brownlow BS., Plaisted CS., Lin PH. 1997
Evaluation of the independent and combined effects of xylitol and polydextrose consumed as a snack on hunger and energy intake over 10 d. King NA., Craig SA., Pepper T., Blundell JE. 2005
The effects of sucrose and maize oil on subsequent food intake and mood. Reid M., Hammersley R. 1999
Sugars and satiety: does the type of sweetener make a difference? Monsivais P., Perrigue MM., Drewnowski A. 2007
Effects of glucose-to-fructose ratios in solutions on subjective satiety, food intake, and satiety hormones in young men. Akhavan T., Anderson GH. 2007
Effect of short-duration physical activity and ventilation threshold on subjective appetite and short-term energy intake in boys. Bellissimo N1, Thomas SG, Goode RC, Anderson GH. 2007
Investigation of the Tolerability of Oral Stevioside in Brazilian Hyperlipidemic Patients Gisleine Elisa Cavalcante da SilvaI; Abdol Hakin AssefII; Claudio Cordeiro AlbinoIII; Letícia de Araujo Funari FerriIII; Gilson TasinIII; Mirian Hideko TakahashiIII; Wilson Eik FilhoIII; Roberto Barbosa BazotteI, 2006
Mutual action of taste and olfaction.1 Murphy C, Cain WS, Bartoshuk LM.1 1977
Mutual action of taste and olfaction.2 Murphy C, Cain WS, Bartoshuk LM.2 1977
The effectiveness of different sweeteners in suppressing citric acid sourness.1 Schifferstein HN, Frijters JE.1 1991
The effectiveness of different sweeteners in suppressing citric acid sourness.2 Schifferstein HN, Frijters JE.2 1991
Aspartame ingested without tasting inhibits hunger and food intake.1 Rogers PJ, Pleming HC, Blundell JE.1 1990
Aspartame ingested without tasting inhibits hunger and food intake.2 Rogers PJ, Pleming HC, Blundell JE.2 1990
Children's food intake following drinks sweetened with sucrose or aspartame: time course effects.1 Birch LL, McPhee L, Sullivan S.1 1989
Children's food intake following drinks sweetened with sucrose or aspartame: time course effects.2 Birch LL, McPhee L, Sullivan S.2 1989
Aspartame: effect on lunch-time food intake, appetite and hedonic response in Children.1 Anderson GH, Saravis S, Schacher R, Zlotkin S, Leiter LA.1 1989
Aspartame: effect on lunch-time food intake, appetite and hedonic response in Children.2 Anderson GH, Saravis S, Schacher R, Zlotkin S, Leiter LA.2 1989
Aspartame-sweetened beverage: effect on plasma amino acid concentrations in normal Adults and Adults heterozygous for phenylketonuria.1 Stegink LD, Wolf-Novak LC, Filer LJ Jr, Bell EF, Ziegler EE, Krause WL, Brummel MC.1 1987
Aspartame-sweetened beverage: effect on plasma amino acid concentrations in normal Adults and Adults heterozygous for phenylketonuria.2 Stegink LD, Wolf-Novak LC, Filer LJ Jr, Bell EF, Ziegler EE, Krause WL, Brummel MC.2 1987
Multiple receptor sites mediate sweetness: evidence from cross adaptation.1 Schiffman SS, Cahn H, Lindley MG.1 1981
Multiple receptor sites mediate sweetness: evidence from cross adaptation.2 Schiffman SS, Cahn H, Lindley MG.2 1981
Multiple receptor sites mediate sweetness: evidence from cross adaptation.3 Schiffman SS, Cahn H, Lindley MG.3 1981
Molecular mechanism of sweet taste: relationship of hydrogen bonding to taste sensitivity for both young and elderly.1 Schiffman SS, Lindley MG, Clark TB, Makino C.1 1981
Molecular mechanism of sweet taste: relationship of hydrogen bonding to taste sensitivity for both young and elderly.2 Schiffman SS, Lindley MG, Clark TB, Makino C.2 1981
Sweet taste: effect on cephalic phase insulin release in men.1 Teff KL, Devine J, Engelman K.1 1995
Sweet taste: effect on cephalic phase insulin release in men.2 Teff KL, Devine J, Engelman K.2 1995
The effect of sweeteners on bitter taste in young and elderly subjects.1 Schiffman SS, Gatlin LA, Sattely-Miller EA, Graham BG, Heiman SA, Stagner WC, Erickson RP.1 1994
The effect of sweeteners on bitter taste in young and elderly subjects.2 Schiffman SS, Gatlin LA, Sattely-Miller EA, Graham BG, Heiman SA, Stagner WC, Erickson RP.2 1994
Effects of liquid preloads with different fructose/fibre concentrations on subsequent food intake and ratings of hunger in women.1 Van de Ven ML, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Wouters L, Saris WH.1 1994
Effects of liquid preloads with different fructose/fibre concentrations on subsequent food intake and ratings of hunger in women.2 Van de Ven ML, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Wouters L, Saris WH.2 1994
Cephalic phase metabolic responses in normal weight Adults.1 Bruce DG, Storlien LH, Furler SM, Chisholm DJ.1 1987
Cephalic phase metabolic responses in normal weight Adults.2 Bruce DG, Storlien LH, Furler SM, Chisholm DJ.2 1987
Effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake.1 Shafer RB, Levine AS, Marlette JM, Morley JE.1 1987
Effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake.2 Shafer RB, Levine AS, Marlette JM, Morley JE.2 1987
Effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake.3 Shafer RB, Levine AS, Marlette JM, Morley JE.3 1987
Sensory evaluation of soft drinks with various sweeteners.1 Schiffman SS, Crofton VA, Beeker TG.1 1985
Sensory evaluation of soft drinks with various sweeteners.2 Schiffman SS, Crofton VA, Beeker TG.2 1985
Overweight and obese boys reduce food intake in response to a glucose drink but fail to increase intake in response to exercise of short duration.1 Tamam S, Bellissimo N, Patel BP, Thomas SG, Anderson GH.1 2012
Overweight and obese boys reduce food intake in response to a glucose drink but fail to increase intake in response to exercise of short duration.2 Tamam S, Bellissimo N, Patel BP, Thomas SG, Anderson GH.2 2012
The comparative gastrointestinal responses of Children and Adults following consumption of sweets formulated with sucrose, isomalt and lycasin HBC.1 Lee A, Wils D, Zumbé A, Storey DM.1 2002
The comparative gastrointestinal responses of Children and Adults following consumption of sweets formulated with sucrose, isomalt and lycasin HBC.2 Lee A, Wils D, Zumbé A, Storey DM.2 2002
Investigation of the Tolerability of Oral Stevioside in Brazilian Hyperlipidemic Patients Gisleine Elisa Cavalcante da SilvaI; Abdol Hakin AssefII; Claudio Cordeiro AlbinoIII; Letícia de Araujo Funari FerriIII; Gilson TasinIII; Mirian Hideko TakahashiIII; Wilson Eik FilhoIII; Roberto Barbosa BazotteI, 2006
Glucose tolerance, blood lipid, insulin and glucagon concentration after single or continuous administration ofaspartame in diabetics.1 Okuno G, Kawakami F, Tako H, Kashihara T, Shibamoto S, Yamazaki T, Yamamoto K, Saeki M.1 1986
Glucose tolerance, blood lipid, insulin and glucagon concentration after single or continuous administration ofaspartame in diabetics.2 Okuno G, Kawakami F, Tako H, Kashihara T, Shibamoto S, Yamazaki T, Yamamoto K, Saeki M.2 1986




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