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Project: Early Diagnosis, Prevention, and Treatment of C. difficile: Update [Entered Retrospectively]

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Title Created by Key Questions Addressed Form Notes
Detection, prevention, treatments, and efficacy and harms of interventions for C. difficile Victoria Nelson 1, 2, 3, 4


Associated Studies (each link opens a new tab)

Title Author Year
Comparison of GenomEra C. difficile and Xpert C. difficile as confirmatory tests in a multistep algorithm for diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection. Alcalá L., Reigadas E., Marín M., Fernández-Chico A., Catalán P., Bouza E. 2015
Superiority of the DNA amplification assay for the diagnosis of C. difficile infection: a clinical comparison of fecal tests. Barkin JA., Nandi N., Miller N., Grace A., Barkin JS., Sussman DA. 2012
Evaluation of three enzyme immunoassays and a loop-mediated isothermal amplification test for the laboratory diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection. Bruins MJ., Verbeek E., Wallinga JA., Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet LE., Kuijper EJ., Bloembergen P. 2012
Multicenter clinical evaluation of the portrait toxigenic C. difficile assay for detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile strains in clinical stool specimens. Buchan BW., Mackey TL., Daly JA., Alger G., Denys GA., Peterson LR., Kehl SC., Ledeboer NA. 2012
Comparative analysis of different methods to detect Clostridium difficile infection. Calderaro A., Buttrini M., Martinelli M., Gorrini C., Montecchini S., Medici MC., Arcangeletti MC., De Conto F., Covan S., Chezzi C. 2013
Multicenter evaluation of the Verigene Clostridium difficile nucleic acid assay. Carroll KC., Buchan BW., Tan S., Stamper PD., Riebe KM., Pancholi P., Kelly C., Rao A., Fader R., Cavagnolo R., Watson W., Goering RV., Trevino EA., Weissfeld AS., Ledeboer NA. 2013
Evaluation of the fully automated BD MAX Cdiff and Xpert C. difficile assays for direct detection of Clostridium difficile in stool specimens. Dalpke AH., Hofko M., Zorn M., Zimmermann S. 2013
Evaluation of a rapid molecular screening approach for the detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile in general and subsequent identification of the tcdC Δ117 mutation in human stools. de Boer RF., Wijma JJ., Schuurman T., Moedt J., Dijk-Alberts BG., Ott A., Kooistra-Smid AM., van Duynhoven YT. 2010
Clinical and laboratory evaluation of a real-time PCR for Clostridium difficile toxin A and B genes. de Jong E., de Jong AS., Bartels CJ., van der Rijt-van den Biggelaar C., Melchers WJ., Sturm PD. 2012
Molecular test based on isothermal helicase-dependent amplification for detection of the Clostridium difficile toxin A gene. Eckert C., Holscher E., Petit A., Lalande V., Barbut F. 2014
Evaluation of six PCR assays in combination with patient related data for the diagnosis of Clostridium difficile-associated infections. Eigner U., Fenner I., Veldenzer A., Schwarz R., Oberdorfer K., Holfelder M. 2014
Concordance between two enzyme immunoassays for the detection of Clostridium difficile toxins. Herrera-Cáceres JO., Camacho-Ortiz A., Galindo-Fraga A., Hernández-Durán M., Cordero-Rangel A., Hernández-Cruz A., Bobadilla-del Valle M., Ponce-de-León A., Sifuentes-Osornio J. 2010
Evaluation of a new automated homogeneous PCR assay, GenomEra C. difficile, for rapid detection of Toxigenic Clostridium difficile in fecal specimens. Hirvonen JJ., Mentula S., Kaukoranta SS. 2013
A multiplex, internally controlled real-time PCR assay for detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile and identification of hypervirulent strain 027/ST-1. Hoegh AM., Nielsen JB., Lester A., Friis-Møller A., Schønning K. 2012
Performance of Clostridium difficile toxin enzyme immunoassay and nucleic acid amplification tests stratified by patient disease severity. Humphries RM., Uslan DZ., Rubin Z. 2013
Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile: real-time PCR detection of toxin genes in faecal samples is more sensitive compared to toxigenic culture. Jensen MB., Olsen KE., Nielsen XC., Hoegh AM., Dessau RB., Atlung T., Engberg J. 2015
Detection of Clostridium difficile toxin A/B genes by multiplex real-time PCR for the diagnosis of C. difficile infection. Kim H., Jeong SH., Kim M., Lee Y., Lee K. 2012
Comparison of real-time PCR techniques to cytotoxigenic culture methods for diagnosing Clostridium difficile infection. Knetsch CW., Bakker D., de Boer RF., Sanders I., Hofs S., Kooistra-Smid AM., Corver J., Eastwood K., Wilcox MH., Kuijper EJ. 2011
Evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infections. Lalande V., Barrault L., Wadel S., Eckert C., Petit JC., Barbut F. 2011
Comparison of Simplexa universal direct PCR with cytotoxicity assay for diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection: performance, cost, and correlation with disease. Landry ML., Ferguson D., Topal J. 2014
Evaluation of a new molecular test, the BD Max Cdiff, for detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile in fecal samples. Le Guern R., Herwegh S., Grandbastien B., Courcol R., Wallet F. 2012
Evaluation of the BD MAX Cdiff assay for the detection of the toxin B gene of Clostridium difficile out of faecal specimens. Leitner E., Einetter M., Grisold AJ., Marth E., Feierl G. 2013
Diagnosing toxigenic Clostridium difficile: new confidence bounds show culturing increases sensitivity of the toxin A/B enzyme immunoassay and refute gold standards. Mattner F., Winterfeld I., Mattner L. 2012
Rapid and sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification test for Clostridium difficile detection challenges cytotoxin B cell test and culture as gold standard. Norén T., Alriksson I., Andersson J., Akerlund T., Unemo M. 2011
Evaluation of the rapid loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay Illumigene for diagnosis of Clostridium difficile in an outbreak situation. Norén T., Unemo M., Magnusson C., Eiserman M., Matussek A. 2014
Differences in outcome according to Clostridium difficile testing method: a prospective multicentre diagnostic validation study of C difficile infection. Planche TD., Davies KA., Coen PG., Finney JM., Monahan IM., Morris KA., O'Connor L., Oakley SJ., Pope CF., Wren MW., Shetty NP., Crook DW., Wilcox MH. 2013
Evaluation of the BD Max Cdiff assay for the detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile in human stool specimens. Putsathit P., Morgan J., Bradford D., Engelhardt N., Riley TV. 2015
Comparison between the two-step and the three-step algorithms for the detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile. Qutub MO., AlBaz N., Hawken P., Anoos A. -- Not Found --
Comparison of two rapid assays for Clostridium difficile Common antigen and a C difficile toxin A/B assay with the cell culture neutralization assay. Reller ME., Alcabasa RC., Lema CA., Carroll KC. 2010
Comparison of eight commercial enzyme immunoassays for the detection of Clostridium difficile from stool samples and effect of strain type. René P., Frenette CP., Schiller I., Dendukuri N., Brassard P., Fenn S., Loo VG. 2012
Evaluation of the Xpert Clostridium difficile assay for the diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection. Shin S., Kim M., Kim M., Lim H., Kim H., Lee K., Chong Y. 2012
Comparison of BD GeneOhm Cdiff and Seegene Seeplex ACE PCR assays using toxigenic Clostridium difficile culture for direct detection of tcdB from stool specimens. Shin BM., Mun SJ., Yoo SJ., Kuak EY. 2012
Comparison of a frozen human foreskin fibroblast cell assay to an enzyme immunoassay and toxigenic culture for the detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile. Strachan AJ., Evans NE., Williams OM., Spencer RC., Greenwood R., Probert CJ. 2013
Comparison of commercial molecular assays for toxigenic Clostridium difficile detection in stools: BD GeneOhm Cdiff, XPert C. difficile and illumigene C. difficile. Viala C., Le Monnier A., Maataoui N., Rousseau C., Collignon A., Poilane I. 2012
Evaluation of an algorithmic approach in comparison with the Illumigene assay for laboratory diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection. Walkty A., Lagacé-Wiens PR., Manickam K., Adam H., Pieroni P., Hoban D., Karlowsky JA., Alfa M. 2013
Comparison of two commercial molecular tests for the detection of Clostridium difficile in the routine diagnostic laboratory. Zidarič V., Kevorkijan BK., Oresic N., Janezic S., Rupnik M. 2011
Vancomycin, metronidazole, or tolevamer for Clostridium difficile infection: results from two multinational, randomized, controlled trials. Johnson S., Louie TJ., Gerding DN., Cornely OA., Chasan-Taber S., Fitts D., Gelone SP., Broom C., Davidson DM. 2014
Fidaxomicin versus vancomycin for infection with Clostridium difficile in Europe, Canada, and the USA: a double-blind, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial. Cornely OA., Crook DW., Esposito R., Poirier A., Somero MS., Weiss K., Sears P., Gorbach S. 2012
Prospective observational study comparing three different treatment regimes in patients with Clostridium difficile infection. Wenisch JM., Schmid D., Kuo HW., Allerberger F., Michl V., Tesik P., Tucek G., Laferl H., Wenisch C. 2012
Fidaxomicin versus vancomycin for Clostridium difficile infection. Louie TJ., Miller MA., Mullane KM., Weiss K., Lentnek A., Golan Y., Gorbach S., Sears P., Shue YK. 2011
A comparison of vancomycin and metronidazole for the treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, stratified by disease severity. Zar FA., Bakkanagari SR., Moorthi KM., Davis MB. 2007
Comparison of vancomycin, teicoplanin, metronidazole, and fusidic acid for the treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. Wenisch C., Parschalk B., Hasenhündl M., Hirschl AM., Graninger W. 1996
Prospective randomised trial of metronidazole versus vancomycin for Clostridium-difficile-associated diarrhoea and colitis. Teasley DG., Gerding DN., Olson MM., Peterson LR., Gebhard RL., Schwartz MJ., Lee JT. 1983
Randomised clinical trial: faecal microbiota transplantation by colonoscopy vs. vancomycin for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Cammarota G., Masucci L., Ianiro G., Bibbò S., Dinoi G., Costamagna G., Sanguinetti M., Gasbarrini A. 2015
Simple faecal preparation and efficacy of frozen inoculum in faecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection--an observational cohort study. Satokari R., Mattila E., Kainulainen V., Arkkila PE. 2015
Intestinal microbiota transplantation, a simple and effective treatment for severe and refractory Clostridium difficile infection. Zainah H., Hassan M., Shiekh-Sroujieh L., Hassan S., Alangaden G., Ramesh M. 2015
The outcome and long-term follow-up of 94 patients with recurrent and refractory Clostridium difficile infection using single to multiple fecal microbiota transplantation via retention enema. Lee CH., Belanger JE., Kassam Z., Smieja M., Higgins D., Broukhanski G., Kim PT. 2014
Recovery of the gut microbiome following fecal microbiota transplantation. Seekatz AM., Aas J., Gessert CE., Rubin TA., Saman DM., Bakken JS., Young VB. 2014
Microbiota transplantation restores normal fecal bile acid composition in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Weingarden AR., Chen C., Bobr A., Yao D., Lu Y., Nelson VM., Sadowsky MJ., Khoruts A. 2014
Oral, capsulized, frozen fecal microbiota transplantation for relapsing Clostridium difficile infection. Youngster I., Russell GH., Pindar C., Ziv-Baran T., Sauk J., Hohmann EL. 2014
Fecal microbiota transplant for relapsing Clostridium difficile infection using a frozen inoculum from unrelated donors: a randomized, open-label, controlled pilot study. Youngster I., Sauk J., Pindar C., Wilson RG., Kaplan JL., Smith MB., Alm EJ., Gevers D., Russell GH., Hohmann EL. 2014
Faecal microbiota transplantation and bacteriotherapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection: a retrospective evaluation of 31 patients. Emanuelsson F., Claesson BE., Ljungström L., Tvede M., Ung KA. 2014
Fecal microbiota transplant for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection: Mayo Clinic in Arizona experience. Patel NC., Griesbach CL., DiBaise JK., Orenstein R. 2013
Fecal microbiome transplantation for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection: report on a case series. Rubin TA., Gessert CE., Aas J., Bakken JS. 2013
Duodenal infusion of donor feces for recurrent Clostridium difficile. van Nood E., Vrieze A., Nieuwdorp M., Fuentes S., Zoetendal EG., de Vos WM., Visser CE., Kuijper EJ., Bartelsman JF., Tijssen JG., Speelman P., Dijkgraaf MG., Keller JJ. 2013
Standardized frozen preparation for transplantation of fecal microbiota for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Hamilton MJ., Weingarden AR., Sadowsky MJ., Khoruts A. 2012
Fecal transplant against relapsing Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in 32 patients. Jorup-Rönström C., Håkanson A., Sandell S., Edvinsson O., Midtvedt T., Persson AK., Norin E. 2012
Fecal microbiota transplantation for relapsing Clostridium difficile infection in 26 patients: methodology and results. Kelly CR., de Leon L., Jasutkar N. 2012
Fecal transplantation, through colonoscopy, is effective therapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Mattila E., Uusitalo-Seppälä R., Wuorela M., Lehtola L., Nurmi H., Ristikankare M., Moilanen V., Salminen K., Seppälä M., Mattila PS., Anttila VJ., Arkkila P. 2012
Colonoscopic fecal bacteriotherapy in the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection--results and follow-up. Mellow MH., Kanatzar A. 2011
Results of faecal donor instillation therapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea. Garborg K., Waagsbø B., Stallemo A., Matre J., Sundøy A. 2010
Recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis: case series involving 18 patients treated with donor stool administered via a nasogastric tube. Aas J., Gessert CE., Bakken JS. 2003
Treatment of refractory/recurrent C. difficile-associated disease by donated stool transplanted via colonoscopy: a case series of 12 patients. Yoon SS., Brandt LJ. 2010
Faecal transplant for recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea: a UK case series. MacConnachie AA., Fox R., Kennedy DR., Seaton RA. 2009
Probiotics reduce symptoms of antibiotic use in a hospital setting: a randomized dose response study. Ouwehand AC., DongLian C., Weijian X., Stewart M., Ni J., Stewart T., Miller LE. 2014
Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and Clostridium difficile diarrhoea in older inpatients (PLACIDE): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial. Allen SJ., Wareham K., Wang D., Bradley C., Hutchings H., Harris W., Dhar A., Brown H., Foden A., Gravenor MB., Mack D. 2013
Probiotic VSL#3 prevents antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Selinger CP., Bell A., Cairns A., Lockett M., Sebastian S., Haslam N. 2013
Saccharomyces boulardii for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in adult hospitalized patients: a single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Pozzoni P., Riva A., Bellatorre AG., Amigoni M., Redaelli E., Ronchetti A., Stefani M., Tironi R., Molteni EE., Conte D., Casazza G., Colli A. 2012
Dose-response efficacy of a proprietary probiotic formula of Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285 and Lactobacillus casei LBC80R for antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea prophylaxis in adult patients. Gao XW., Mubasher M., Fang CY., Reifer C., Miller LE. 2010
Intake of Lactobacillus plantarum reduces certain gastrointestinal symptoms during treatment with antibiotics. Lönnermark E., Friman V., Lappas G., Sandberg T., Berggren A., Adlerberth I. 2010
Feasibility and tolerability of probiotics for prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in hospitalized US military veterans. Safdar N., Barigala R., Said A., McKinley L. 2008
Effect of a fermented milk combining Lactobacillus acidophilus Cl1285 and Lactobacillus casei in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Beausoleil M., Fortier N., Guénette S., L'ecuyer A., Savoie M., Franco M., Lachaine J., Weiss K. 2007
Efficacy and safety of Saccharomyces boulardii in prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea due to Helicobacterpylori eradication. Duman DG., Bor S., Ozütemiz O., Sahin T., Oğuz D., Iştan F., Vural T., Sandkci M., Işksal F., Simşek I., Soytürk M., Arslan S., Sivri B., Soykan I., Temizkan A., Beşşk F., Kaymakoğlu S., Kalayc C. 2005
Impact of adding prophylactic probiotics to a bundle of standard preventative measures for Clostridium difficile infections: enhanced and sustained decrease in the incidence and severity of infection at a community hospital. Maziade PJ., Andriessen JA., Pereira P., Currie B., Goldstein EJ. 2013
Staggered and tapered antibiotic withdrawal with administration of kefir for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Bakken JS. 2014
Clostridium difficile pilot study: effects of probiotic supplementation on the incidence of C. difficile diarrhoea. Plummer S., Weaver MA., Harris JC., Dee P., Hunter J. 2004
Prevention of beta-lactam-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii compared with placebo. McFarland LV., Surawicz CM., Greenberg RN., Elmer GW., Moyer KA., Melcher SA., Bowen KE., Cox JL. 1995
The potential use of cholestyramine to reduce the risk of developing Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea in patients receiving long-term intravenous ceftriaxone. Puri BK., Hakkarainen-Smith JS., Monro JA. 2015
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study to assess the ability of rifaximin to prevent recurrent diarrhoea in patients with Clostridium difficile infection. Garey KW., Ghantoji SS., Shah DN., Habib M., Arora V., Jiang ZD., DuPont HL. 2011
Lactoferrin for the prevention of post-antibiotic diarrhoea. Laffan AM., McKenzie R., Forti J., Conklin D., Marcinko R., Shrestha R., Bellantoni M., Greenough WB. 2011
Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Clostridium difficile Infection: The Ochsner Experience. Ray A., Smith R., Breaux J. 2014
Efficacy of combined jejunal and colonic fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection. Dutta SK., Girotra M., Garg S., Dutta A., von Rosenvinge EC., Maddox C., Song Y., Bartlett JG., Vinayek R., Fricke WF. 2014
Efficacy and safety of, and patient satisfaction with, colonoscopic-administered fecal microbiota transplantation in relapsing and refractory community- and hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection. Khan MA., Sofi AA., Ahmad U., Alaradi O., Khan AR., Hammad T., Pratt J., Sodeman T., Sodeman W., Kamal S., Nawras A. 2014
Treatment of relapsing Clostridium difficile infection using fecal microbiota transplantation. Pathak R., Enuh HA., Patel A., Wickremesinghe P. 2013
Fecal flora reconstitution for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection: results and methodology. Rohlke F., Surawicz CM., Stollman N. 2010
Efficacy of BIO K+ CL1285 in the reduction of antibiotic-associated diarrhea - a placebo controlled double-blind randomized, multi-center study. Sampalis J., Psaradellis E., Rampakakis E. 2010
Use of probiotic Lactobacillus preparation to prevent diarrhoea associated with antibiotics: randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. Hickson M., D'Souza AL., Muthu N., Rogers TR., Want S., Rajkumar C., Bulpitt CJ. 2007
Prophylactic Saccharomyces boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a prospective study. Can M., Beşirbellioglu BA., Avci IY., Beker CM., Pahsa A. 2006
Lack of effect of Lactobacillus GG on antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Thomas MR., Litin SC., Osmon DR., Corr AP., Weaver AL., Lohse CM. 2001
The lack of therapeutic effect of Saccharomyces boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-related diarrhoea in elderly patients. Lewis SJ., Potts LF., Barry RE. 1998
Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: a prospective study. Surawicz CM., Elmer GW., Speelman P., McFarland LV., Chinn J., van Belle G. 1989
Antimicrobial stewardship programs in inpatient hospital settings: a systematic review. Wagner B., Filice GA., Drekonja D., Greer N., MacDonald R., Rutks I., Butler M., Wilt TJ. 2014




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