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Completed Systematic Reviews




Diet and PA for Prevention of Diabetes-Full Data Extraction


Public Project Complete

Statistics: 50 Studies, 1 Key Question, 1 Extraction Form,
Date Published: Sep 05, 2017 06:03PM
Description: None Provided
Contributor(s): None Provided
Funding Source: CDC
Methodology Description: None Provided

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Diet-Related Fibers and Human Health Outcomes, Version 1 (Retired)


Public Project Complete

Statistics: 868 Studies, 1 Key Question, 1 Extraction Form,
Date Published: Dec 30, 2016 05:11PM
Description: The objectives of this database are to: 1. Systematically compile and provide access to primary, English-language, peer-reviewed science linking dietary fiber intake in humans to one or more of 9 potential health benefits 2. Provide researchers with a tool to understand how different fibers are characterized in studies 3. Facilitate researchers in identifying gaps in the current research 4. Create a database to serve as a starting foundation of primary human literature for conducting evidence-based reviews and meta-analyses 5. Efficiently assist researchers in identifying fibers of interest This database should serve as a foundation for future work. Specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, detailed in the user manual, were applied in determining database eligibility; thus, this database is not intended to serve as a sole source for identifying all possible fiber literature for the purposes of conducting a meta-analysis or systematic review. This database contains Population, Intervention, Comparator, and Outcome (PICO) data to help users formulate and narrow the focus of their research question. It is expected that secondary searches will be conducted to augment this database.
Contributor(s): Nicola McKeown (PI), Mei Chung (Co-I), Kara Livingston (Project & Data Manager), Caleigh Sawicki, Danielle Haslam, Deena Wang, Caitlin Blakeley, Yinan Jia, Nicole Baruch, Micaela Karlsen, Carrie Brown
Funding Source: International Life Sciences Institute – North America branch (ILSI-NA)
Methodology Description: please see user manual

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Diet-Related Fibers and Human Health Outcomes, Version 2 (Retired)


Public Project Complete

Statistics: 919 Studies, 1 Key Question, 1 Extraction Form,
Date Published: Dec 30, 2016 05:11PM
Description: The objectives of this database are to: 1. Systematically compile and provide access to primary, English-language, peer-reviewed science linking dietary fiber intake in humans to one or more of 9 potential health benefits 2. Provide researchers with a tool to understand how different fibers are characterized in studies 3. Facilitate researchers in identifying gaps in the current research 4. Create a database to serve as a starting foundation of primary human literature for conducting evidence-based reviews and meta-analyses 5. Efficiently assist researchers in identifying fibers of interest This database should serve as a foundation for future work. Specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, detailed in the user manual, were applied in determining database eligibility; thus, this database is not intended to serve as a sole source for identifying all possible fiber literature for the purposes of conducting a meta-analysis or systematic review. This database contains Population, Intervention, Comparator, and Outcome (PICO) data to help users formulate and narrow the focus of their research question. It is expected that secondary searches will be conducted to augment this database.
Contributor(s): Nicola McKeown (PI), Mei Chung (Co-I), Kara Livingston (Project & Data Manager), Caleigh Sawicki, Danielle Haslam, Deena Wang, Caitlin Blakeley, Yinan Jia, Nicole Baruch, Micaela Karlsen, Carrie Brown
Funding Source: Please see user manual.
Methodology Description: International Life Sciences Institute – North America branch (ILSI-NA)

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Adverse Events in Women with Silicone Gel Breast Implants: A Systematic Review


Public Project Complete

Statistics: 57 Studies, 1 Key Question, 1 Extraction Form,
Date Published: Oct 20, 2016 07:52PM
Description: Breast implants are medical devices used to reconstruct the breast following mastectomy, to augment breast size, or to correct a congenital abnormality.1 Breast implants consist of a silicone outer shell and a filler (most commonly silicone gel or saline). In the US about half of implants are silicone gel-filled implants. Recently, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recommended the creation of a surveillance registry to monitor for potential adverse events associated with silicone gel breast implants. However, a clinical registry that can provide meaningful data on the long-term safety requires a large number of patients and rigorous patient follow-up, both of which have been difficult for breast implant companies to achieve. The American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS®) and the Plastic Surgery Foundation (PSF) has solicited this systematic review (SR) to summarize the state of the literature on safety outcomes in women with silicone gel breast implants for the purpose of informing the development of the registry.
Contributor(s): Ethan Balk, Gowri Raman, Esther Avendano, Amy Earley
Funding Source: The Plastic Surgery Foundation
Methodology Description: Comprehensive literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Ovid Healthstar (inception through 30 June 2015), as well as the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (through the first quarter of 2015). Additional citations were solicited from the Advisory Panel. The searches combined terms for silicone gel implants and outcomes of interest. Four researchers screened citations in duplicate, and discrepancies were resolved in a group conference. Reference lists of existing systematic reviews, selected narrative reviews, and included studies were screened. Retrieved full-text articles were rescreened in duplicate. We included studies of any longitudinal design comparing women with and those without breast implants. Studies included women with any history of silicone gel-filled breast implants, excluding injected silicone, silicone tissue expanders, and recalled implants produced by Poly Implant Prothèse (La Seyne-sur-Mer, France). At least one half the participants had to have silicone gel (vs. saline) implants, but to avoid inadvertently excluding eligible studies, we included studies that did not report the proportion of participants with silicone gel implants. Comparison groups included either women with no implants (including the general population), women with saline breast implants, or women undergoing other cosmetic surgery procedures. We excluded studies of only women with specific signs or symptoms (e.g., only women with joint pain) or only women seen in a specialty clinic (e.g., women evaluated by a rheumatologist), who do not represent the general population. Study Extraction and Assessment Data from each study were extracted by 1 of 4 methodologists and confirmed by at least 1 other experienced methodologist. Extracted data included study, participant, and implant characteristics, including use for reconstruction or augmentation; study country; implantation dates and duration; outcomes; analytical methods; and results. We preferentially extracted the most adjusted models comparing implants with no implants, and we captured all factors that were adjusted for. We extracted both direct comparisons of implants versus no implants and indirect comparisons, such as standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). To assess study quality, we applied an adaptation of the McMaster Quality Assessment Scale of Harms (McHarm) Tool. We also applied selected quality questions from the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for quality assessment of observational and case–control studies.

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Sugars and Health - Evidence Map


Public Project Complete

Statistics: 213 Studies, 2 Key Questions, 2 Extraction Forms,
Date Published: Oct 20, 2016 07:42PM
Description: This evidence map on sugars and health outcomes was developed using an iterative process. Evidence Map data are being used to support a stakeholders ‘ decision-making on refining research questions and topic prioritization. The goal of this Future Research Needs project is to characterize the available evidence regarding the intake of sugars and health outcomes and identify priority areas where additional research needs remain.
Contributor(s): Mei Chung, PhD, MPH (Principal Investigator). Team Members: Samantha Berger, Carrie Brown, Jiantao Ma, Joachim Sackey, Deena Wang.
Funding Source: The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) North American Branch.
Methodology Description: Abstract submitted to Experimental Biology 2014: Sugars and health: Applying evidence mapping techniques to assess the evidence. Objective: Evidence mapping (EM) is a novel, systematic method for describing the volume and characteristics of research in a broad field. We applied EM to evaluate the empirical evidence of the state of science on the relationships between sugars and cardiometabolic health-related outcomes. Methods: A pre-defined, systematic study selection process was applied to a broad Medline search (through April 2013) of the existing literature on sugars. Studies reporting cardiometabolic risk factors and/or related clinical outcomes were selected for this study. Data from the studies were extracted and deposited to a data repository. Descriptive analyses were performed. Results: Our EM included 207 studies (196 intervention and 11 cohort studies). Of the intervention studies, the most common sugar interventions were sucrose (40%) and fructose (31%), and the top two controls were glucose (14%) and starch (13%). The most studied outcomes were glycemic profiles (27%), plasma lipids (11%), and anthropometrics (7%). Studies were generally short in duration (median 26 days, ranging from <1 to 730 days). 89% were in adults and 6% were in children. The 11 cohort studies investigated 3 different sugar exposures and 9 different hard clinical outcomes. Conclusions: An extensive but heterogeneous body of evidence exists in this broad field of research. EM is a useful method for identifying "hot" research areas and research gaps. Evidence-based methods are effective to direct future research.

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